This study compared secondary prophylaxis treatment with on-demand treatment for severe haemophilia A in Taiwan. Fifty patients from one medical centre were evaluated over a 5-year period. Differences in annual bleed rates and factor VIII (FVIII) utilization were assessed between patients receiving secondary prophylaxis and patients receiving FVIII concentrates on-demand. Results were then used as inputs in a pharmacoeconomic model to predict outcomes of future haemophilia therapy strategies in Taiwan. The median annual number of total bleeding episodes was significantly lower in the 13 (26%) patients who received secondary prophylaxis than in the 37 patients who received FVIII on-demand (7.76 vs. 31.91, P < 0.0001). The between-group difference in median annual factor VIII utilization was statistically significant (1824.41 IU kg−1 for the prophylaxis group and 1324.81 IU kg−1 for the on-demand group, P < 0.01). It was estimated that approximately $2 million (USD) per year would be added to the cost of treatment by having all severe haemophilia A patients in Taiwan receive secondary prophylaxis instead of on-demand therapy while 12 566 bleeding will be prevented. It is recommended that National Health Insurance officials utilize these data to evaluate the benefits of enhanced treatment strategies and before making substantial policy changes to haemophilia care in Taiwan.