Background/purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the factors influencing the turnover intention of dentists in hospitals in Taiwan. Materials and methods: Nationwide, 175 structured questionnaires were returned from dentists who were working for a hospital of the Bureau of the National Health Insurance, Taipei division, representing a 37% response rate. Results: The main findings were: (1) the turnover intention of residents was higher than that of visiting staff; (2) the gap between expected income and actual income has an impact on satisfaction with compensation; the larger the gap, the less satisfied the dentists were with their compensation; (3) satisfaction with compensation and job stress have an impact on job satisfaction and the organizational commitment of dentists; and (4) although satisfaction with compensation, job stress, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment were related to the turnover intention of dentists, the most significant predictive factor was the opportunity of working in a clinic. Organizational commitment was associated with the turnover intention of residents, while job satisfaction was related to the turnover intention of visiting staff. Conclusion: The findings of this study should provide some insights for hospital managers regarding human resources management strategies. Copyright (C) 2013, Association for Dental Sciences of the Republic of China. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.