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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ir.cnu.edu.tw/handle/310902800/34596


    標題: Early Childhood Caries Is Causally Attributed to Developing Psychomotor Deficiency in Pre-School Children: The Resultant Covariate and Confounder Analyses in a Longitudinal Cohort Study
    作者: Liang, Chen-Yi
    Teng, Andy Yen-Tung
    Liu, Yen Chun
    貢獻者: Department of Childhood Education and Nursery, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy & Science
    Kaohsiung Medical University
    University of Rochester
    關鍵字: trigeminal deafferentation
    dental-caries
    behavior
    less
    日期: 2022
    上傳時間: 2023-12-11 13:59:46 (UTC+8)
    出版者: MDPI
    摘要: Background: Causality has recently been suggested to associate early childhood caries with psychomotor deficiency in preschoolers, where their causal interactions via other risk determinants remain unclear. Methods: To analyze such causality, we randomly recruited 123 three-to-six-year-old children in a three-year longitudinal study, where the caries/dmft measures, age/gender, BMI, amended comprehensive scales for psychomotor development (CCDI-aspects), parental education/vocation, and diet were collected for assessment of their inter-relationships. Subsequently, t-tests, multiple/linear-regressions, and R-2-analyses were utilized to compare the differences of variables between age/gender, BMI, and dmft vs. relationships among all variables and CCDI-aspects. Results: In the regression modeling, there were significant differences between gender vs. age (p < 0.05; not BMI) regarding established associations between caries and CCDI manifests for psychomotor deficiency. As for diet vs. socio-economic status, there were significant differences when caries/dmft were at lower- vs. higher-scales (<4 and 6-10), associated with expressive language and comprehension-concept (p similar to 0.0214-0.0417) vs. gross-motor and self-help (p similar to 0.0134-0.0486), respectively. Moreover, diet vs. socio-economic-status contributed significantly different CCDI-spectra via expressive language and comprehension-concept (adjusted-R-2 similar to 0.0220-0.2463) vs. gross-motor and self-help (adjusted-R-2 similar to 0.0645-0.0994), respectively, when the caries detected were at lower- vs. higher-scales (<4 and 6-10), in contrast to those depicted without both SES diet variables (adjusted-R-2 similar to 0.0641-0.0849). Conclusion: These new findings confirm that early childhood caries is causally attributed to developing psychomotor deficiency in preschoolers, whereas biological gender/age, not BMI, may act as viable confounders during interactions, in contrast to diet and socio-economic status, via differential low-high scales of caries activity with significant interference, respectively. Collectively, ECC-psychomotor interactions may underpin some distinct biologic vs. socio-mental/psyche attributes towards different determinants for vulnerable children.
    關聯: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, v.19, n.11, Article 6831
    Appears in Collections:[嬰幼兒保育系] 期刊論文

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