|摘要: ||本研究有兩個主要目的(1)瞭解二至六歲各年齡層幼兒的飲食行為的發展,並建立設計飲食檢核表協助幼兒照顧者快速記錄幼兒飲食行為,(2)瞭解幼兒對食物與身體成長關係的認知思考模式,對食物與健康關係的認知思考模式,對食物分類的認知思考模式,對食物量的認知思考模式,食物之喜惡及對不喜愛食物的處理方式。本研究主要調查方法為觀察法。本研究以二至五歲學齡前幼兒為樣本母群體。採立意取樣,調查前先徵得樣本家長同意,預定樣本為160名(預試60名,正式參與研究100名)。 研究結果包括(1)超過75%的幼兒帶著早餐到校吃,到校吃早餐的比例隨年齡增加而增加,幼兒平均午、晚餐時間約30分,無論食用固體或流體食物,湯匙是各年齡層幼兒於午、晚餐時主要使用的餐具,手常被用於協助進食工具,筷子的使用隨年齡增加而增加。各年齡層幼兒進食時最常見與進食無關的行為是東看西看。部分幼兒用餐時用手、衣服擦嘴或舔手指頭,幼兒於幼兒園中比在家用餐時更常東看西看,用手、衣服擦嘴或舔手指頭。大部分幼兒先吃固體食物在吃流體食物,邊吃飯邊吃配菜。(2)各年齡層幼兒不吃的食物項目屬於蔬菜類最多。五歲幼兒比其他年齡小的幼兒更知道對照顧者表達不吃的意見,也更知道拒絕參雜有不喜歡吃食物的混合食物。(3)不同年齡層幼兒對食物消化、最後去處的認知有顯著差別,幼兒對於為什麼要吃食物,常見理由為肚子餓、長高長大。幼兒認為食物進入身體最後去了肚子的人數比例最高,但是對食物消化過程沒有明確觀念,常以長高、不餓或有力氣等可見、可感覺的現象來說明消化。(4)幾乎所有幼兒都能區別食物與非食物,高於50%的三、四歲幼兒認為所有食物對人體有好處,五歲幼兒比其他年齡層幼兒更能判別有益身心的食物,但是一般而言學齡前幼兒對於健康與非健康食物的辨別能力不是很好。由食物分類測試中顯示學齡前幼兒並無明顯根據食物營養特性分類的能力,食物外顯的形狀、顏色或者食物的功能、食物之間的關係釋他們主要分類的根據。中途改變標準或留下無法歸類的情形,也透露了這一認知階段的幼兒,邏輯能力發展的限制。本研究中也以食物為例印證了皮亞傑對學齡前幼兒缺乏質量保留概念的看法。比較起來,各年齡層幼兒經過指導後,在非連續質量(土司、熱狗、蘋果)保留概念上表現得比連續量(流體食物)更好,此一現象於五歲轉型期幼兒身上更明顯。|
The purposes of this research are two folds. Firstly, to explore the developmental behavior of children's diets, and to provide the care-givers a chick list in order to ease the recording of children's diets behavior. Secondly, to clarify children's cognition toward the categories of foods, the quantity of foods, and the relationship between categories of foods and their physical growth or health. And to grasp what categories of foods children like or dislike, and the way children treat their dislike foods. Data collection is based on observations. The target population is the 2-5 year old preschooler. One hundred sixty subjects were selected from those children whose parents agreed to attend this study. The First category of observation is related to the eating habits. More than 75% of the children bring their breakfast with them to school and eat the breakfast at school. Spoon are the main tool used during meal-taking. Hands are the most frequently used auxiliary tool for meal-taking. Chopsticks are used increasingly with the age of the children. Gazing-around is frequently observed during children's meal-taking. Wiping lips with their hands or clothes and licking fingers during meal-taking are more frequently observed at school than at home. Solid foods are usually taken before liquid foods. The five-year-old children are more likely to express their dislike of foods using oral language than younger children, and more likely to reject the dislike foods upon the awareness of the existence of dislike foods mixed in the dish. The second category of observation involves the children's knowledge about the benefit of food-taking and the process of food-digestion. The reasons answered for taking foods include hungriness, grow. Children are likely to think that abdomen is the place that the foods finally arrive. Children usually have no clear ideas about food-digestion. Final category is about children's ability of classifying the foods and conservation tests. Almost all children can distinguish between edible and unedible objects. More than half of children of three- or four-year-old answer that all foods are good for their body. Preschool children usually cannot classify foods according to nutritional characteristics of food; they usually classify the food according to shapes, colors, or functions of foods, or the connections among foods. They sometimes change their rules of foods-classification, or leave the classification job unfinished; the phenomena reveal the limitation of logic capability in this developmental stage. The result of conservation test is consistent with Piaget's theory; preoperational stage children lack the ability of conserving matter. After being conducted, the children's ability of conserving matter improves; further, the improvement is more on countable matter (e.g., apples) than on uncountable matter (e.g., liquid food), and is more obvious in the five-year old children than the younger.