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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.cnu.edu.tw/handle/310902800/9792


    標題: 以超音波震盪技術處理溫泉碳酸鹽結垢之可行性研究
    The Feasibility Study of Ultrasound Assisted Decarbonating Process of Scaling Problem in Hot Spring Water
    作者: 吳君豪
    Chun-Hao Wu
    貢獻者: 萬孟瑋
    環境工程與科學系碩士班
    關鍵字: 碳酸鹽
    結垢
    超音波
    抑制
    Hot spring
    Scaling
    Ultrasound
    Carbonate
    日期: 2008
    上傳時間: 2008-12-29 15:24:04 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 台灣溫泉質可分為三類,分別以氯離子為主之氯化物泉、碳酸根離子為主之碳酸氫鹽泉、以及硫酸根離子為主之硫酸鹽泉。當上述幾種類型之溫泉水在管線輸送途中,以含碳酸離子成份之泉質易附著及沉積於管線設備中,形成管線結垢之現象,此一問題長久以來深深困擾著一些溫泉業者。運輸管線及相關設施倘若長時間不清除管璧上之結垢物,將使管線運輸效率降低,甚至造成管線鏽蝕,導致運送管線存在爆裂之危機。然而目前用於管線抗垢的方法中,以加入化學抗垢劑減少其結垢之可能性為主,但含氮、磷之抗垢抑制劑排入自然水體後,將造成自然水體的負擔,形成潛在的「優養化」危機。此外,如經常性的更換輸送管線,除增加營運成本之負擔外,亦產生釵h廢棄物之問題。因此,為根本解決溫泉輸送管線及設備結垢之問題,本研究旨在研究及探討以模擬溫泉水樣通過尖端式超音波震盪器處理後,觀察循環系統中水樣之pH值變化及分析反應前後鈣離子之濃度,以驗證溫泉水中碳酸鈣結垢物之生成機制及超音波震盪處理後之結垢抑制效應。
    模擬溫泉水樣結垢機制之分析結果顯示,當循環系統於低流速時,陰陽離子間有較穩定之接觸作用,使其結垢物生成較穩定,較易產生結垢及沉澱之現象,反應後鈣離子濃度較低;然而,當流速增加時,因水中之擾動頻率增加,離子間失去穩定的生成機制,因而降低結垢物生成之機率,故呈現反應後鈣離子濃度較高之結果。此外,模擬溫泉水樣因受到高溫之影響,水樣中陰陽離子易以離子型態存在,可減緩結垢物生成及沉澱之時間,實驗結果與實地查訪時觀察之結果相互符合,因此,當溫度越高時,溫泉水體較不易出現結垢物之沉澱現象。
    超音波物理震盪效應抑制結垢物生成之結果顯示,超音波震盪處理系統適合於環境參數在低溫及低流速時,其物理性震盪效應可增加陰陽離子以離子態存在,因而產生穩定之抑制機制。因此,本研究所使用之超音波?#63841;及頻率,受溫度及流速之影響,其震盪處理效應於低溫及低流速下較具抑制成效;然於高溫及高流速狀態時,其抑制效益較不明顯,此項結論仍需持續之研究及探討。
    There were three types of hot spring water in Taiwan, including chlorine salt type, carbonate type and sulfate salt type. When the hot spring water was delivered by pipeline system, the carbonate was easily precipitated in the pipeline and storage system, which considered as an essential problem for the owners of hot spring industry. These scaling problems corroded and damaged the pipes, leading the potential explosion problems. The major treatment methods were adding the chemical agents that contained the phosphorous and nitrate to inhibit the scaling, which caused the serious eutrophication problems in our natural environment. Replacing the pipes frequently was considered as a way to solve problems and free for chemical pollutants. However, the maintenance cost was huge and the wasted pipes were considered as an environmental issue. Therefore, in order to solve scaling problems with green technologies, this study applied ultrasound energy to the simulation process of hot spring delivery system. The increase/decrease of pH values were determined and the before/after concentrations of calcium ion were analyzed. Thus, the potential formation mechanisms of scaling in hot spring water and the performance of ultrasound assisted inhibition process were carefully examined.
    The formation mechanisms of scaling in hot spring water: The experimental results indicated that the cations and anions were easily collided to form the precipitations under the lower flow rate. The reacted calcium concentrations were analyzed in low degree. However, the results were opposite under the higher flow rate. The reacted calcium concentrations were analyzed in high degree. Moreover, the same phenomena was observed and examined in the conditions of temperature changes. Higher temperature resulted in higher reacted calcium concentrations. Thus, it permitted that lower flow rate and temperature could form a stable reaction sites for cations and anions in hot spring water which resulted in high opportunity of scaling problems.
    The performance of ultrasound assisted inhibition process: The results indicated that ultrasound assisted inhibition process of scaling problem was depended with flow rate and temperature. When the control system was under lower flow rate and temperature, the performance functioned well in inhibiting the scaling problems. However, the performance was not obvious under higher flow rate and temperature. The experimental results of this study are insufficient to conclude the optimization control conditions of ultrasound assisted inhibition process, which needs further researches and studies to fulfill the requirements.
    關聯: 校內公開,校外永不公開
    Appears in Collections:[環境工程與科學系(所)] 博碩士論文

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