|摘要: ||本研究自2006年3 月至2008年5月於嘉藥校園人工溼地系統（以下簡稱嘉藥系統）、港尾社區自然淨水系統（以下簡稱港尾系統）、蚵寮國中人工溼地系統（以下簡稱蚵寮系統）、二行社區人工溼地系統（以下簡稱二行系統）、安順排水淨化系統（以下簡稱安順系統）及鳥松溼地公園（以下簡稱鳥松溼地）進行水質測定分析及水棲昆蟲採樣，探討各個人工溼地系統處理水質情形、水棲昆蟲發生的狀況及建立生物指標評估人工溼地水質的可行性。
水質監測參數包括溫度、pH、導電度、溶氧(Dissolved Oxygen，DO)、生化需氧量(Biochemical Oxygen Demand, BOD5)、氨氮(Ammonia Nitrogen, NH4-N)及懸浮固體(Suspended Solid, SS)等，並計算個溼地系統之河川污染指標(River pollution index, RPI)。每次採集水棲昆蟲的同時記錄當日水溫並進行水質分析監測，所採集之水棲昆蟲進行物種鑑定及計算數量，並利用分析出之水質參數及物種數與生物量計算河川污染指標及生物指標，其中生物指標包含總個體數、科級生物指標(Family-level biotic index)、分類群豐度(Richness index)、夏農-威佛歧異度指標（Shannon-Weaver diversity index）、辛普森歧異度指標（Simpson’s diversity index）及均勻度指標（Evenness index），進而將水質參數及河川污染指標與生物指標進行相關性分析與理想方程式推估。
水質參數來推估生物指標，經逐步多元迴歸分析推估理想方程式，經計算平均誤差值，選擇平均誤差值小於30%之Gleason index、Evenness index及Simpson’s diversity index等三個理想方程式應用於水質評估，如此可減少水質參數分析項目，達到整體評估水體環境的目的。
This study analysis the parameters of water quality and collected the aquatic insects in the Chna constructed wetland system, Gang-Wei constructed wetland system, Ke-Liao constructed wetland system, Er-Hang constructed wetland system, An-Shun constructed wetland system and Niao-Song wetland park since March 2006 to May 2008. We related aquatic insects sampling to water quality parameters in various constructed wetland system and investigated to establish the biotic index to assess constructed wetland water quality.
The aquatic insects were collected regularly, and the monitoring parameters of water quality were recorded at the same time. In this research, we analyze the monitoring parameters of water quality including temperature, pH, conductivity, DO, BOD5, NH4-N and SS, and to calculate the river pollution index of a constructed wetland system. We counted the number and identified the species of the collected aquatic insects. We utilize the numbers and the species of the collected aquatic insects to calculate the biotic index, including the number of individual, Family-level biotic index, Richness index, Shannon-Weaver diversity index, Simpson's diversity index and Evenness index. We wish to establish an ideal formula for the biotic index to assess the constructed wetland water quality.
The results showed that the water quality and aquatic insects of the six constructed wetlands systems were significant difference. We compared the four water quality parameters that to calculate the river pollution index of the four regular sampling system, we found that the Gang-Wei system had high DO and low NH4-N value, Chna system had better BOD5 and SS value. The Gang-Wei system had the best environment quality overall. Chna system’s aquatic insects recorded six orders, 15 family and 15 species, the number of individual per sampling area was 5044 / m2. Gang-Wei system’s aquatic insects recorded seven orders, 18 family and 19 species, the number of individual per sampling area was 14,998 / m2. Ke-Liao system’s aquatic insects recorded six orders, 8 family and 8 species, the number of individual per sampling area was 477 / m2. An-Shun system’s aquatic insects recorded five orders, 9 family and 9 species, the number of individual per sampling area was 544 / m2. Niao-Song system’s aquatic insects recorded five orders, 5 family and 5 species, the number of individual per sampling area was 111 / m2. The correlation testing of the water quality parameters and the biotic index are significant difference, depending on the various characteristics of the constructed wetland system.
The river pollution index (RPI) was used to evaluate the river water pollution levels. The river pollution index (RPI) of Gang-Wei system, Chna system, Ke-Liao system and Er-Hang system were progressive increase. The Family-level biotic index was to evaluate the water quality, the Gang-Wei system is better than the Chna system, and the Ke-Liao system is the worse. The higher Shannon-Weaver diversity index value represented the more species diversity and abundance. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index value of Gang-Wei system, Chna system, and Ke-Liao system were reduce progressively. Applied these methods to evaluate water quality had the same results. We were able to refer the current use of the biotic index to assess stream water quality methods, and to establish the biotic index to assess constructed wetland water quality. The potential biotic indexes were Family-level biotic index and Shannon-Weaver diversity index. These methods could assist chemical analysis to assess the whole water quality.
The multiple gradually regression analysis was to establish an ideal formula for water quality parameters to estimate the Gleason index, Evenness index andSimpson’s diversity index. The results were the same as the utility of river pollution index. It could reduce water quality parameters analysis project, and assess the overall water environment.
Analyze the river pollution index (RPI) and the individuals of various orders correlation to establish the biological indicators. The result was that the Odonata, Hemiptera, Coleoptera and Ephemerida were the candidate of the biological indicators in the constructed wetland system. It needed more large sample size and more detail aquatic insect classification to establish the more representative biological indicators.
The constructed wetland was the breeding site of Culex and Anolheles. It has the potential to increase the local adult moxquito populations. These mosquitoes could be the vectors of pathogen or to disturb the neighbor of constructed wetland. It should improve the management of constructed wetland to reduce the public health problem.