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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://ir.cnu.edu.tw/handle/310902800/34326


    標題: Cadmium-induced ultrastructural changes and apoptosis in the gill of freshwater mussel Anodonta woodiana
    作者: Li, Yong Quan
    Chen, Chien M.
    Liu, Na
    Wang, Lan
    貢獻者: Shanxi Univ, Sch Life Sci
    Chia Nan Univ Pharm & Sci, Dept Environm Resources Management
    關鍵字: Heavy metal
    Acute toxicity
    Caspase
    Ca-ATPase
    H2O2
    Morphological change
    DNA fragmentation
    日期: 2021
    上傳時間: 2023-11-11 11:43:42 (UTC+8)
    出版者: SPRINGER HEIDELBERG
    摘要: This study investigated the acute toxicity of cadmium (Cd) to the freshwater mussel Anodonta woodiana. The freshwater mussels were exposed to five concentrations of Cd (0 mg/L, 8.43 mg/L, 16.86 mg/L, 33.72 mg/L, and 67.45 mg/L) for up to 96 h. The 24-h, 48-h, 72-h, and 96-h LC50 values for Cd were estimated as 562.3 mg/L, 331.1 mg/L, 182.0 mg/L, and 134.9 mg/L, respectively. Caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and Ca-ATPase activities; protein and H2O2 levels; DNA fragmentation; and ultrastructure of the gill were also investigated. The activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 in mussels were increased by Cd in a dose-dependent manner, where higher doses of Cd (33.72 mg/L and 67.45 mg/L) significantly increased the enzyme activities compared to the controls (P < 0.05). The caspase-8 activity was significantly depressed by a low dose of Cd (8.43 mg/L) but was clearly induced by higher doses of Cd (16.86 mg/L, 33.72 mg/L, and 67.45 mg/L) (P < 0.05). The Ca-ATPase activity and H2O2 levels were elevated and reached maximum values under the medium dose of Cd (16.86 mg/L). However, protein levels were decreased by Cd in an inverse dose-dependent manner. In the gills of the mussels, Cd treatment induced DNA fragmentation as demonstrated by DNA ladders observed via agarose gel electrophoresis. Moreover, ultrastructural alterations in gill cells of mussels treated with Cd (16.86 mg/L and 67.45 mg/L) for 96 h were observed by electronic microscopy. The ultrastructure abnormalities were characterized by the following features: (1) a disordered arrangement and breaking off of microvilli of epithelial cells; (2) chromatin condensed near the nuclear membrane and the appearances of extremely irregular nuclei, some with a fingerlike shape and an unclear, swollen, invaginated, or ruptured nuclear membrane and apoptotic bodies; (3) swollen and vacuolating mitochondria, some with disintegrated or missing cristae; (4) a disintegrated rough endoplasmic reticulum containing different sizes of vesicles; and (5) shrinking and deformation of Golgi bodies with decreased vesicle numbers. Our results demonstrated that Cd could activate caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and Ca-ATPase; cause ultrastructural changes; and produce DNA fragmentation in the mussels investigated. Based on the information obtained through this study, it is reasonable to conclude that Cd can induce apoptosis in the gills of the mussels, eventually leading to tissue damage.
    關聯: ENVIRON SCI POLLUT R, v.29, n.16, pp.23338-23351
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