|摘要: ||我國污水處理廠普及率提高，每年污泥總產量逐年提高，加上掩埋場址難尋及民眾環保意識抬頭等因素，將污泥朝向「減量化」、「資源化」與「再利用化」以符合永續發展為現今關注之議題，利用堆肥化使污泥無害化與資源化，可解決龐大污泥之處理問題，並兼具環境保護與高經濟效益。本研究利用快速堆肥機找出適當之堆肥資材配比為污泥:菇包比5：5 (w/w)，並篩選出3種複合菌劑以加速堆肥腐熟化，藉由探討污泥堆肥化過程之物化特性、微生物生態與種子生物分析等，並將堆肥成品應用於植物栽培，以判斷汙泥堆肥成品對土壤與作物生長的效應。
本研究篩選出的3種複合菌劑(以a, b 與c為代號)，經細菌鑑定結果，b菌劑含79種細菌，主要菌群為Caldinitratiruptor microaerophilus (37.74%)、Thermovenabulum sp. (15.31%)與 Geobacillus sp. (14.04%)，a菌劑含72種細菌，主要菌群為Geobacillus sp. (28.05%)、Thermovenabulum sp.(20.25%)與Ammonifex degensii (14.21%)，c菌劑含58種細菌，主要菌群為Ammonifex degensii (32.12%)、Geobacillus sp. (21.18%)與Thermovenabulum sp. (15.90%)。
將3種菌劑(代號a, b 與c)與市售木黴菌(代號d)，或將複合菌劑混合應用於促進污泥堆肥化，比較各菌劑對污泥堆肥過程中之物化特性、微生物生態與對植物生長之效應。結果顯示，污泥堆肥成品pH值介於6.95~8.32；以添加木黴菌之污泥堆肥pH值最高；EC值介於1.12~0.82 ms/cm；含水率為42.77~58.14%；有機質含量為61.44~83.79%；E4/E6介於11.15~5.73；C/N比為17.83~14.0；利用青江菜種子進行生物分析，污泥堆肥初期對青江菜種子生長之效應並不明顯，污泥堆肥腐熟後對青江菜種子胚根與胚莖之生長有促進作用，以添加b菌劑之污泥堆肥對植物生長促進效應最優。堆肥初期，添加菌劑之總細菌數高於對照組(未添加菌劑)，堆肥期間之總細菌數約維持於108 CFU/g以上、真菌數約維持於105 CFU/g以上，放線菌數約維持於106~109 CFU/g以上，其中以添加b菌劑之污泥堆肥成品之放線菌數最高，單獨添加木黴菌之污泥堆肥成品之放線菌數最少。以FTIR圖譜分析污泥堆肥成品，由單獨添加b菌劑與bd混合菌劑之污泥堆肥之圖譜顯示，堆肥成品中有明顯之胺基消失、芳香族減少及羧基產生之現象，判斷污泥堆肥達腐熟狀態。將污泥堆肥成品應用於青江菜種植，以施用化學肥料為對照組，結果顯示添加污泥堆肥可使土壤pH值些微提高，且能顯著提升土壤有機質，未接菌堆肥之植物株高明顯較低，添加d、ab與bc菌劑堆肥之植物株高較其他處理為高，施用化學肥料之植物乾重最低，添加菌劑污泥堆肥之植物乾重均優於未添加菌劑。由上述結果可知，本研究所篩選之菌劑對污泥堆肥腐熟化與資源化具正面效應，顯示好氧污泥堆肥處理在污泥處理有良好之應用潛力。
Increasing attention were attracted on the disposal of sewage sludge due to enlargement of wastewater treatment plant, large production, lack of suitable lanfill sites, and upgrade of environmental awareness of people. Composting is an environmentally friendly method for mitigation, reclamation and recycle of sewage sludge to correspond with sustainable development. Detoxification and recycling of sewage sludge by composting is recommended an important strategy due to its ecological protection and economic benefits.
Fast-composting products were prepared by waste processing apparatus to look for the optimum ratio of compost material, sewage sludge (SS) and spent mushroom substrate (SMS) in amounts equivalent to 50 and 50% (w/w). The effects on the compost quality and plant growth of sewage sludge compost (SSC) were evaluated by changes of physical-chemical properties, micrbial ecology and seed bioassay during composting. In this study, 3 types of efficient fermentation agents (A, B and C) were isolated to improve compost humufication. The baterial ecology of three fermentation agents were identified using molecular biology techniques. The major baterial strains in 3 fermentation agents were Caldinitratiruptor microaerophilus (37.74%), Thermovenabulum sp. (15.31%) and Geobacillus sp. (14.04%) in B agent; Geobacillus sp. (28.05%), Thermovenabulum sp. (20.25%) and Ammonifex degensii (14.21%) in A agent; and Ammonifex degensii (32.12%), Geobacillus sp. (21.18%) and Thermovenabulum sp. (15.90%) in C agent, respectively.
To compare the improvement for SSC quality with 3 fermentation agents and commercial agent (Trichoderma), changes of physical-chemical properties, micrbial ecology and seed bioassay were evaluated during composting. The results showed that pH values of SSC composts were in range of 6.95~8.32, the highest pH was found in inoculation of Trichoderma. EC values of SSC composts were in range of 1.12~0.82 mS/cm; water content of SSC composts were in range of 42.77~58.14% ; organic matter content of SSC composts were in range of 61.44~83.79% ; E4/E6 of SSC composts were in range of 5.73~11.15; and C/N ratio of SSC composts were in range of 14.0~170.83. The phytotoxicity of SSC composts were analyzed by the percentage of seed germination. The increase of Brassica chinensis L. CV. Ching-Geeng growth were not significant by the aqueous extract obtained from SSC compost in the initial period of SSC composting. Aqueous extract obtained from mature SSCs played an important role in the promotion growth of radical and epitical, especially the highest promotion effect was found in the SSC compost from inoculation of B agent. This study also investigated succession of microbial communities during composting of SSC. The results showed that total bacteria number was higher due to inoculation and maintained >108 CFU/g compost; fungi number maintained >105 CFU/g compost and actinomyces number maintained >106~109 CFU/g compost in the whole composting period, the largest number of actinomyces in the inoculation of B agent and the least number of actinomyces in the inoculation of Trichoderma agent. The FTIR spectra at various agent inoculation showed a decrease of aliphatic and amide structures and an increase of aromatic structures were confirmed in the inoculation of B agent and mixture of B agent and Trichoderma. To evaluate the growth effect of SSC compost on plant growth of Brassica chinensis L. CV. Ching-Geeng and compared with commercial chemical fertilizer (as control), the results showed that increase of soil pH and higher plant height were due to the SSC compost application, significant promotion of plant growth were in the treatment of SSCs with Trichoderma, mixtures of A&B and B&C. In this study, results showed that the microbial fermentation agent would promote humification of SSC and represented a potential process to make sewage sludge suitable for use as soil conditioner in agriculture.