當人們長時間處於空氣中含有高濃度微生物的室內環境，身體健康即有遭受危害之疑慮。欲評估室內空氣中微生物污染程度的方法有很多，目前經常使用的慣性衝擊採樣方式，再經由培養計數，往往耗費大量金錢及時間，因此本研究結合具有短時間採集大量空氣生物樣本之Coriolis?μ採樣器與能快速量測微生物活性之ATP生物冷光技術來快速預估室內生物氣膠濃度，並評估其做為室內生物氣膠巡查檢驗方法之可行性，以期能即時掌握室內空氣微生物污染潛勢。本研究先於實驗室使用大腸桿菌及酵母菌來探討單一純菌與兩種純菌之混菌生物氣膠濃度與生物活性濃度之關係；之後使用MAS-100與Coriolis?μ採樣器同時採集台灣南部地區26間室內公共場所室內生物氣膠，並結合ATP生物冷光儀量測生物活性；最後再比較MAS-100與Coriolis?μ採樣器採集生物氣膠特性之差異，以及進行生物氣膠濃度與生物活性濃度之相關性及線性迴歸分析。實驗結果顯示採集單一純菌生物氣膠得到之生物氣膠濃度與生物活性濃度之相關性皆比混菌生物氣膠好；而以MAS-100採集到之室內細菌、真菌或總生物氣膠濃度與由Coriolis??採集室內生物氣膠後之採集液測得的總生物活性濃度之相關性皆呈中度相關，空氣中菌相愈複雜，相關性愈差。Coriolis??使用之採集液體積愈多，採集室內外生物氣膠的效率愈高；MAS-100採集室內生物氣膠的變異性大於Coriolis??。迴歸分析得到總生物活性濃度僅能夠解釋室內生物氣膠濃度變異的20-37%。雖本研究無法直接使用Coriolis??採樣器結合ATP生物冷光儀量測到之總生物活性濃度來即時預估室內空氣生物性污染情形，但本研究綜合實場測得之細、真菌生物氣膠濃度、總生物活性濃度與室內空氣品質標準，訂出室內空氣細菌及真菌皆符合室內空氣品質標準之總生物活性濃度閾值為200 RLU/m3。藉由Coriolis??採樣器結合ATP生物冷光技術快速測得之總生物活性濃度能即時評估室內生物氣膠是否符合室內空氣品質標準，其可運用於室內空氣品質維護管理工作，輔助傳統微生物培養法做為室內空氣生物性污染物之巡檢工具。 Exposure to indoor high levels of airborne microorganisms could be harmful to human health when people stay long time in indoor environments. Many methods can be used to evaluate the contaminated extent of indoor airborne microbes. The widely used method were the air sampling by inertial impactor, traditional culture, and counting of colony forming units. However, they are time-consuming and expensive. This study combined the Coriolis?μ sampler which can collect considerable quantities of bioaerosols in a short time and the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence assay which can quickly detect microbial activity to predict indoor bioaerosol concentrations. Furthermore, this study also accessed the feasibility of using the combined detection system to be the walk-through method to detect indoor bioaerosols for obtaining the potential indoor bioaerosol pollution in real time.This study explored the correlations between bioaerosol concentrations and microbial activity concentrations for the single strain of Escherichia coli or Candida famata var. flareri and the two mixed strains of Escherichia coli and Candida famata var. flareri in the laboratory. Next, the MAS-100 and Coriolis?μ samplers were used to sample indoor bioaerosols simultaneously and detect microbial activity by an ATP bioluminescence assay in 26 public places located in the south of Taiwan. Finally, the study performed the statistical comparisons of bioaerosol sampling characteristics between MAS-100 and Coriolis?μ, and statistical correlation and linear regression analyses between bioaerosol concentrations and microbial activity concentrations.Experimental results indicated the correlations between bioaerosol concentrations and microbial activity concentrations for single strain bioaerosols were better than those for mixed strain bioaerosols. The relationships of indoor bacterial, fungal, or total bioaerosol concentrations collected by MAS-100 and microbial activity concentrations detected from the collection liquid of Coriolis?? after trapping bioaerosols were all moderately correlated. The more airborne flora, the poor correlation between bioaerosol concentrations and microbial activity concentrations. The higher volume of collection liquid used in Coriolis??, the higher indoor or outdoor bioaerosol collection efficiency. The variability of collecting indoor bioaerosols of MAS-100 was higher than that of Coriolis??.Regression analysis showed the total microbial activity concentrations only can explain the variability of 20-37% in indoor bioaerosol concentrations. The total microbial activity concentrations detected by the combined detection system of the Coriolis?? sampler and an ATP bioluminescence assay cannot be used directly to predict the real-time pollution of indoor airborne microbes. However, the threshold of the total microbial activity concentration to simultaneous meet the indoor air quality standards for bacteria and fungi was stetted at 200 RLU/m3 based on the measured concentrations of airborne bacteria, fungi and the total microbial activity in public places. The rapidly detected total microbial activity concentrations by the combined detection system can be used to assess whether the indoor bioaerosols to meet indoor air quality standard or not in real time. The combined detection system, being as a tool for walk-through detection of indoor airborne microbes, can assist traditional culture method to manage indoor air quality.