The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and chronic toxicity of sulfa-monomethoxine (SMM) to aquatic organisms to evaluate its impact at different trophic levels in the ecosystem. Regarding the growth inhibition of microalgae, SMM exhibited 72-h median effective concentration (EC50) values of 5.9 mg L-1 for freshwater Chlorella vulgaris and 9.7 mg L-1 for marine Isochrysis galbana. In a study on the cladocerans, SMM exhibited acute toxicity and 48-h median lethal concentrations of 48 mg L-1 for Daphnia magna and 283 mg L-1 for D. similis. An examination of chronic toxicity revealed that SMM inhibited the brook production of the cladocerans and exhibited 21-day EC50 values of 14.9 mg L-1 for D. magna and 41.9 mg L-1 for D. similis. This study investigated the potentially adverse effects of SMM on aquatic organisms and revealed that microalgae exhibited higher sensitivity to SMM than cladocerans did. The residue of SMM in water is recommended to be carefully evaluated to reduce ecological impacts after applied to cultured animals. C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, v.38 n.3, pp.874-880