Aim Visceral fat is more significantly correlated with inflammation markers and oxidative stress than is subcutaneous fat. Myeloperoxidase is one inflammatory signal secreted after polymorphonuclear leukocytes are stimulated. However, few studies discuss the correlation between visceral fat and the inflammatory response in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods Sixty-six patients with CKD were enrolled and 60 healthy participants. Visceral fat levels were obtained using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Traditional risk factors for myeloperoxidase were analyzed. Results Baseline myeloperoxidase levels were significantly different between patients and controls, and were correlated with visceral fat after they had been adjusted for residual renal function. A multivariate linear regression model revealed that the neutrophil count and visceral fat and serum albumin levels were significant predictors of plasma myeloperoxidase in patients with CKD, but not in controls. The neutrophil count was correlated with myeloperoxidase only in the CKD group. Conclusion Visceral fat predicted plasma myeloperoxidase in patients with CKD, but not in healthy controls. Myeloperoxidase was probably contributed by primed and activated neutrophils that had been irritated by visceral fat in patients with CKD.