|摘要: ||全球的主要旅遊市場近年來皆呈緩步攀升，自 1950 年至2010 年，全球平均觀光 客之年平均成長率為4.2％，近年以亞太地區成長13％全球居冠，其中東南亞地區成長 16.5％，更是在全球15 個主要地區中，排名第一(UNWTO, 2011)。而台灣受惠陸客之賜， 近二年之成長率分別為14.％及26.67％(交通部觀光局，2011)。觀光業蓬勃發展同時造就 旅館存量劇增，截至2011 年6 月底，台灣之國際觀光旅館已達70 間(共20,497 房)、觀 光旅館亦達37 間(共5,072 房)，對應前一年度，其房間數量之成長率分別為11.7％及38.0 ％，而未來的五年，已取得申設核可或正在建造中的旅館總房間數更達6,645 房。 值此觀光榮景，相對更應有危機意識。旅館為觀光業之領頭羊，亦為觀光業從業 人口最多、碳排放密度最高之耗能單體，然國內對於觀光旅館碳排放之調查統計卻付之 闕如。叢薾島國台灣能否支應此能資源開支？能否負荷此龐大的碳排放？觀光休閒業該 消耗多少的能資源係屬合理？觀光旅館碳排放現況為何？該如何預測其碳排？旅館的碳 排減量對策應為何？其效益為何？相信此皆為邁入綠色休閒遊憩之前應有的基礎研究， 而優質的綠色旅館方為業主省錢、政府省力、全民享環保的三贏局面。 本研究為系列性研究計畫，其中已具備二年之系列前期計畫成果，可為本研究賡 續進展基礎。其餘工作要項區分為三年期研究計畫，未來擬以前二期之成果為基礎，賡 續發展後續研究，期建立台灣旅館碳排放全貌及其評估預測模式，各年期研究計畫如下： 1. 台灣旅館建築碳排放調查分析之研究（第一年研究子題） 1-1 蒐集台灣旅館之營建新建及整建資料（現正進行中） 1-2 建立台灣旅館建築統計之基礎資料（現正進行中）。 1-3 建立台灣旅館碳排放資料庫 1-4 推求旅館建築碳排放量與建築設計之關係，提出旅館碳排簡易評估方式。 1-5 歸結低碳排旅館特性，提出旅館建築減排之建議及對策。 2. 台灣旅館建築營運碳排放之研究（第二年研究子題） 2-1 台灣旅館之用電、用瓦斯及燃油現況統計。 2-2 台灣旅館之水資源耗用現況統計。 2-3 台灣旅館餐飲耗用現況統計。 2-4 台灣旅館一次性用品耗用統計。 2-5 台灣旅館垃圾製造量統計。 2-6 台灣各級旅館各項資材耗用統計，並提出簡易評估準則。 2-7 台灣各級旅館碳排放密度統計及預測模型。 3. 台灣旅館減碳基準研擬及對策研議（第三年研究子題） 本期計畫基於前期調查資料，進階分析台灣各級旅館之碳排放，預計工作項目及成果： 3-1 各級旅館新建、整建、營運及拆除階段之碳排放資料庫建立。 3-2 建立各級旅館碳排放量及碳排放密度預測模型。 3-3 建議各級旅館建築碳排放量基準、人均碳排放量基準。 3-4 各級旅館於各階段之優秀減碳實例蒐整。 3-5 旅館碳排放減量對策及建議。 3-6 旅館碳排放減量效益評估。|
The global tourism market has been experiencing a gradual increase in recent years. For example, 4.2% increase in annual average tourist growth rate from 1995 to 2010. Moreover, the annual growth rate of tourism market in Asia-pacific rime has become the largest market in the world; Eastern-south region takes the first pole in the 15 main areas in the whole world (UNWTO, 2011). In view of the rapid growth of China tourists, the growths of recent two years are 14% and 26.67% respectively (Tourism Beareau, 2011). The vigorous development of tourism also leads to a rapidly increasing of hotels, the number of international tourist hotels has reached to 70 with a total mount of 20,497 rooms, the standard tourist hotels also reached to 37 with 5,072 rooms. The number indicated the growths are 11.7% and 38% respectively. In the coming five years, there are still 6,645 rooms of tourist hotels which are allowed to be built. Taiwan nowadays is in a huge upgrowth which the tourism industry has never experienced, the crisis of conscious needs to be take into consideration. The hotel industry is the most important one of the tourism, which takes on the most employees and turns out the highest density of carbon dioxide. However, the related studies of CO2 emission on hotels have never been touched. Could an island country like Taiwan carry such enormous resource consumption? Could we allow taking over such as a huge CO2 emission? What is the reasonable resource consumption rate of tourism industry? What is the true situation of CO2 emission on hotel industry? How could hotel evaluate and predict its carbon dioxide? What are the appropriate policies of reducing carbon dioxide and what is its effectiveness? There is no doubt that Green Hotel will be cost saving to the hotel operator and environmental friendly to the nature, yet, the related researches are rarely limited in Taiwan. Based on 2 former related researches, “Research on the Simplification of ENVLOAD Estimation for Hotel Buildings (NSC 94-2218-E-041-001)” and “A study on energy performance of hotel buildings in Taiwan (NSC 99-2221-E-041-018)”, the research is intended to build a database and to sort out good models of carbon dioxide of hotel industry in Taiwan. Some comparison will be established in order to propose some suggestion. The research plans are listed yearly as followed: 1st year: Research on the Carbon Dioxide of Hotel Buildings in Constructed and Refurbished Phase 1-1. To assemble the newly constructed and refurbished data of hotel buildings. 1-2. To establish the statistical database of hotel buildings. 1-3. To establish the statistical database of carbon dioxide on hotel buildings. 1-4. To suggest simplified methods of predicting carbon dioxide on hotel buildings. 1-5. To suggest references of reducing carbon dioxide on hotel buildings. 2nd year: Research on the Carbon Dioxide of Hotel Buildings in Operation Phase 2-1. To establish a database of electricity, gas and fuel consumption data of hotels. 2-2. To establish water consumption data of hotels. 2-3. To establish a database of food and beverage on hotels. 2-4. To establish a database of unreusable appliances of hotels. 2-5. To establish a database of garbage created on hotels. 2-6. To establish a database of resources of hotels and to propose a simplified estimation principle. 2-7. To establish a statistical database and to establish prediction models of carbon dioxide on every rating hotel. 3rd year: Research on the Carbon Dioxide Reducing Suggestion and Classification Standard of Hotel Industry. 3-1. To establish a database of newly constructed, refurbished operation and demolishment phases on every rating hotel. 3-2. To establish prediction models of carbon dioxide and CO2 emission density on every rating hotel. 3-3. To propose the classification standard of CO2 emission and carbon dioxide per guest on every rating hotel. 3-4. To assemble the superior cases in terms of reducing carbon dioxide in every phase of every rating hotel. 3-5. To propose suggestions on reducing carbon dioxide of hotel industry. 3-6. To estimate the benefit of reducing carbon dioxide on hotel industry.