Purpose: We sought to assess whether heat-induced autophagy, apoptosis and cell damage in H9c2 cells can be affected by pre-inducing HSP70 (heat shock protein 70).Materials and methods: Cell viability was determined using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide staining and a lactate dehydrogenase assay. Apoptosis was evidenced using both flow cytometry and counting caspase-3 positive cells, whereas autophagy was evidenced by the increased LC3-II expression and lysosomal activity.Results: The viability of H9c2 cells was temperature-dependently (40-44 degrees C) and time-dependently (90-180 min) significantly (p<0.05) reduced by severe heat, which caused cell damage, apoptosis and autophagy. Heat-induced cell injury could be attenuated by pretreatment with 3-methylademine (an autophagy inhibitor) or Z-DEVD-FMK (a caspase-3 inhibitor). Neither apoptosis nor autophagy over the levels found in normothermic controls was induced in heat-shock preconditioned controls (no subsequent heat injury). The beneficial effects of mild heat preconditioning (preventing heat-induced cell damage, apoptosis and autophagy) were significantly attenuated by inhibiting HSP70 overexpression with triptolide (Tripterygium wilfordii) pretreatment.Conclusion: We conclude that pre-inducing HSP70 attenuates heat-stimulated cell autophagy, apoptosis and damage in the heart. However, this requires in vivo confirmation.
International Journal of Hyperthermia, v.29 n.3 pp.239-247