High doses of gadolinium-based contrast media are reported to induce deterioration of renal function. We assessed whether prophylactic 0.9% saline hydration inhibits high-dose gadodiamide-induced renal damage in rats. Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, which are given gadodiamide (5 mmol/kg) with (hydration group) or without (control group) 0.9% saline hydration. The saline (4 mL/kg) was infused as a bolus into the peritoneum every 4 h, starting 12 h before and continuing for 12 h after the gadodiamide injection. Urine was collected to calculate creatinine clearance (Ccr) 24 h before and 48 h after the gadodiamide injection. The kidneys were harvested and stained for pathologic analysis. High-dose gadodiamide induced acute kidney injury as shown by decreased Ccr and renal histology with tubular cell injuries 48 h post-injection in both the groups. However, the extent of Ccr reduction was significantly (p = 0.02) less in the hydrated rats (-15% in the hydration group vs. -39% in the control group). Renal tubular cell injuries characterized by vacuolization, loss of brush borders, sloughing of tubular cells into the lumen, and flattening of the tubular epithelium were less frequently seen in the hydration group; only vacuolization (p = 0.01) and epithelial sloughing (p = 0.02) of the proximal tubules differed significantly between the two groups. We conclude that prophylactic 0.9% saline hydration significantly inhibited high-dose gadodiamide-induced nephropathy.
Human & Experimental Toxicology, 31(11), 1170-1178