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    標題: 碼頭貨櫃裝卸機具室內空氣汙染物暴露之研究
    Exposure Levels of Indoor Air Pollutants in Container Handling Facilities in Container Terminals
    作者: 吳婉君
    貢獻者: 職業安全衛生系
    黃小林
    關鍵字: 碼頭
    懸浮微粒
    暴露評估
    室內空氣品質
    抽菸
    Dock
    suspended particles
    exposure assessment
    indoor air quality
    smoking
    日期: 2013
    上傳時間: 2014-03-11 15:04:37 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 由於貨櫃碼頭裝卸機具司機需長時間處於駕駛艙之密閉空間進行貨櫃裝卸作業,為瞭解駕駛艙內空氣品質對其健康影響,因此本研究針對貨櫃碼頭裝卸機具探討駕駛於工作期間暴露室內空氣汙染物之程度及進行健康風險評估。本研究選取貨櫃碼頭常見之跨載機、門型起重機、橋式起重機及堆高機等四種裝卸機具駕駛艙進行室內空氣品質調查。使用粉塵粒徑分析儀(Grimm 1.109)量測駕駛艙內微粒質量濃度及粒徑分布;以Q-Trak Plus室內空氣品質監測儀量測一氧化碳、二氧化碳、溫度及相對溼度;使用HPLC分析甲醛及GC/FID分析苯、甲苯、乙苯及二甲苯,並依揮發性有機物分析結果來進行健康風險評估。研究結果指出由於多數門型起重機駕駛在作業時會吸菸,導致駕駛艙內PM10、PM2.5、PM1.0、可吸入性、胸腔性及可呼吸性微粒質量濃度高於其他三種裝卸機具。粒徑分析顯示四種裝卸機具駕駛艙內懸浮微粒主要為分布在次微米範圍的細微粒, PM1.0/PM10為90 %以上;可吸入性微粒中,有88.64 %~95.34 %為能進入到肺泡區的可呼吸性微粒。四種裝卸機具駕駛艙內二氧化碳和一氧化碳濃度皆低於我國室內空氣品質標準。吸煙駕駛艙內之微粒及一氧化碳濃度明顯高於非吸煙駕駛艙。由駕駛艙內溫度及相對濕度計算之不舒適指數顯示駕駛艙內之舒適度是位於可接受的範圍。健康風險評估顯示駕駛於四種裝卸機具內,暴露甲醛及苯的致癌風險皆超出可接受之致癌風險值(1×10-6);而除跨載機外,駕駛於其他三種裝卸機具內暴露於甲醛、甲苯、乙苯及二甲苯之非致癌風險皆超出可接受之風險值(HQ>1)。為避免小微粒和揮發性有機化合物對裝卸機具駕駛員造成健康危害,建議駕駛艙內禁止抽菸及引入經過處理乾淨的空氣進行通風換氣,以維持駕駛艙良好的室內空氣品質。
    Container handling facility drivers must stay in cabinets for a long time to carry out container handling operation in container terminals. In order to understand the effects of indoor air quality (IAQ) on drivers’ health, the purposes of this study were to measure indoor pollutants in container handling facilities to explore drivers’ exposure levels to these pollutants and assess health risk. Four common containers handling facilities including straddle carrier, rail mounted gantry crane, quayside gantry crane and fork lift truck in container terminals were selected to investigate indoor particulates. Particle mass concentration and size distribution in the cabinet were measured by a portable dust size analyzer (Grimm 1.109). Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, temperature and relative humidity were detected by a Q-Trak Plus IAQ monitor. Formaldehyde and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) were analyzed by HPLC and GC/FID, respectively. Health risk assessment was implemented based on levels of the five volatile organic compounds in the cabinet.Results indicated that mass concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, PM1.0, inhalable, thoracic and respirable particles in cabinets of rail mounted gantry crane were higher than the other three kinds of container handling facilities because most drivers often smoke in cabinets during periods of working. Particle size distribution showed that the sizes of suspended particles in cabinets of the four container handling facilities were mainly distributed in the range of submicrometer. The proportions of PM1.0 to PM10 were above 90%. Approximately 88.64%~95.34% of inhalable particles were respirable particles which can reach to pulmonary alveoli of human’s respiratory system. Levels of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide in cabinets of the four container handling facilities were below the Taiwan’s IAQ standard. Levels of particle and carbon monoxide in smoking cabinets were significantly higher than in non-smoking cabinets. Discomfort indexes calculated by indoor temperature and relative humidity in driver’s cabinets showed that the degrees of comfortable were acceptable. Health risk assessment indicated that the carcinogenic risks of drivers exposed to formaldehyde and benzene in cabinets of the four container handling facilities were beyond above the acceptable carcinogenic risk (1×10-6). The non-carcinogenic risks of drivers exposed to formaldehyde, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene in cabinets of the other three container handling facilities except for straddle carrier were above acceptable risk (HQ>1). In order to avoid small particles and volatile organic compounds posing health hazards for drivers of container handling facilities, it was recommended that prohibit smoking and increase air exchange by introducing pretreated clean air into cabinets to maintain good indoor air quality.
    關聯: 電子全文公開日期:不公開,學年度:101,116頁
    Appears in Collections:[職業安全衛生系(含防災所)] 博碩士論文

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