The obesity proportion of the adolescent and children in Taiwan is increasing. Moreover, the lack of motivation and opportunity to exercise very easily leads to the health problem. The purpose of this study is by using the relevant factors of the social learning framework to investigate the body mass index of the adolescent in southern Taiwan as well as to provide the health related physical fitness promotion strategy.
The questionnaire uses the cross sectional descriptive research design with the social learning theory as the research construct, including the personal information (demographic characteristic, and sense of self), environment factor (family environment, school sports education, and fitness knowledge related factors), and behavior (daily life habits). The 567 respondents who filled the questionnaire either online or paper-based are 12 to 18 years old from southern Taiwan.
The result of data analysis in this research shows that the influence variables of body mass index are including gender, age, parents’ body types, the number of sports competitions they participated in the past 12 months, their body type expectation and the number of days in a week having the normal three meals a day. Based on the result of this research, the strategies that can promote health include (1) parents not only need to have the knowledge of health, behavior and the proper body appearance, but it is more important for them to have the “prevention is better than treatment” concept, understand the prevention of chronic diseases, and thus they can be the learning models for their children, (2) parents are guidelines for adolescents to establish correct nutrition knowledge and habits in the daily diet, (3) family, social environment, and the school curriculum focus on the young people to have the fitness and the correct concept of body appearance, in many aspects understanding the potential problem of adolescence’s own body, (4) community health center together with community development committee, a team of the village heads and schools, to promote the national sport and cultivate the young to have the regular exercise as habit. The health awareness and behavior of parents, letting the physical fitness incorporated into the instructional design and test scoring design of the school health and physical education curriculum, to co-perate the promotion of the Sports Secretary of the Ministry of Education, and establish a healthy position to promote an excellent environment. At the same time, National Health Council and the community health units also promote the knowledge of physical fitness and national regular exercise, raising the awareness of the health related fitness of adolescence through dynamic life and a balanced diet.