|摘要: ||因工作所引起的肌肉骨骼傷害（Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders, WMSD）已危害勞工的健康、造成事業單位生產力下降以及增加國家的醫療負擔。肌肉骨骼傷害已躍居先進工業國家嚴重的職業安全衛生問題，為有效防制肌肉骨骼傷害，先進國家陸續提出各種肌肉骨骼傷害防制方法。化學機械研磨製程（Chemical Mechanical Planarization , CMP）是晶圓平坦化的製造程序，研磨製程雖多已自動化，但仍有部分製程仍需以重複性的動作與不自然姿勢的人力搬運或操作，可能導致較高的肌肉骨骼傷害風險。
本論文以美國國家職業安全衛生研究所（National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, NIOSH）所提出的DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) 肌肉骨骼防制程序，來探討美商嘉柏公司台灣廠區化學機械研磨製程中的9個作業場所的人因工程工作場所改善。先以定義(Define)來辨識製程中的肌肉骨骼危害；繼之以量測 (Measure) 來取得工作及工作場所的人因工程數據以作為分析 (Analyze) 危害的風險程度及整體危害風險，本階段在於以NIOSH抬舉公式作為指引，再納入REBA(Rapid Entire Body Assessment) 檢核表並辨識造成危害的因子為不良姿勢、過度施力及高重覆動作。接著把這些危害因子以我國勞工安全衛生研究所的「人因工程工作場所改善技術」提出改善構想 (Improve)。最後的管控手段（Control）用以追蹤及評估改善績效。
Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) have been recognized as a worsening occupational safety and health issue in developed, industrialized countries. WMSDs will impose severe threats to the health of laborers and the productivity of profit-seeking enterprises, society, and the country. To effectively prevent WMSDs, developed countries are committed to developing practical measures. Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) is a process adopted for wafer planarization. Although this process has been mostly automated, some steps still require manual handling and involve repetitive movements and unnatural postures, posing a high risk of musculoskeletal disorders. WMSDs have replaced chemical hazards and become the most serious labor safety and health issue (prioritization). The CMP process is a high risk process in this regard. In this study, the DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) technique, proposed by the NIOSH (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health), was used to improve the ergonomics for nine CMP work stations at the plant of Cabot Microelectronics Corporation in Taiwan. Following the DMAIC technique, potential musculoskeletal hazards in the process were first identified (the define stage) and the ergonomics statistics from the work processes and work stations were measured and analyzed (Measure and Analyze stages) to assess the level of hazard risks and overall hazard risks. The Lifting Equation by the NIOSH was used as the index along with the REBA (Rapid Entire Body Assessment) to categorize the hazard factors (three categories: unnatural posture, excessive manual force, and repetitive movements. Meanwhile, improvement plans were proposed according to those hazard factors (the Improve stage) and the improvement progress was tracked and evaluated afterward (the Control stage). The results revealed that after the DMAIC was implemented, the risks associated with potential musculoskeletal hazards were minimized for the following steps: feeding materials into chemical tanks, handling in warehouses, material lifting, handling at labs and PU pad examination. Specifically, significant improvement over the three hazard factor categories examined was observed and the REBA risks associated with the five steps were reduce from MH (medium to high) to L (Low). As verified in this study, the DMAIC technique cannot be used to devise specific improvement plans and the ergonomic department still needs further discussions and field experience before an effective plan can be created. Yet, an effective WMSD preventive measure is an important ergonomic improvement method that should be promoted.