Both land and offshore mud volcanoes have been investigated thoroughly in southwesternTaiwan in terms of morphological expression, spatial distribution, composition, and evasion flux of extruded material. The interactive relationship between mud volcanoes and their associated structures, however, has rarely been examined. This study proposes areleasebendmodel that explains the spatial distribution and relative activity of mud volcanoes along the ChishanFault, southwesternTaiwan. The surface movement of the ChishanFault and mud volcano activity were monitored by GPS stations and gas flux measurements, respectively. The resistivity sub-structure of strata across the fault was investigated by the magnetotelluric (MT) method and resistivity image profiling (RIP). Analytical results support the contention that extensional activity at the releasebend provides openings to fissures associated with the ChishanFault, thereby increasing the potential for amud volcano. The proposed model may facilitate future exploration of mud volcanoes.