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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.cnu.edu.tw/handle/310902800/24437


    標題: 兩岸安全衛生法規比較探研
    Comparison study of laws of occupational safety and health between the cross-strait
    作者: 賴姿卉
    貢獻者: 嘉南藥理科技大學:產業安全衛生與防災研究所
    蔡百豐
    關鍵字: 職業災害補償
    教育訓練
    管理制度
    組織架構
    organization
    management system
    education and training
    日期: 2011
    上傳時間: 2011-10-24 15:44:13 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 由本研究中可以探討且了解到兩岸安全衛生法的制度不同處以及相同處,在兩岸安全衛生管理之政府組織架構方面,我國所屬的最高部門為行政院,而中國大陸所屬的則是國務院,兩岸體制不盡相同,而中國大陸在安全部分比較重視煤礦安全,而我國則較重視勞工教育訓練以及勞工安全衛生。在事業單位安全衛生管理制度規定方面我國依據事業單位風險等級、規模(勞工人數),將事業單位分為第一類事業之事業單位(顯著風險事業)、第二類事業之事業單位(中度風險事業)以及第三類事業之事業單位(低度風險事業)作業場所,並針對事業分散於不同地區者,進行安全衛生管理單位的設置及安全衛生管理人員配置,人數及證照數均有法規明定,而在中國大陸方面主要設置安全生產管理機構只有三種生產單位:危險物品的生產、經營、儲存單位以及礦山開採、建築施工單位應當設置安全生產管理機構或者配備專職安全生產管理人員。於安全生產管理單位及安全生產管理人員配置上也只分為300人以上及300以下規模(勞工人數)之作業場所,其證照的取得也不像台灣制度如此完善,在中國大陸取得安全生產管理人員大部分都來自培訓中心的訓練,中國大陸的培訓中心總共分為四級,分別訓練不同階層的人士之安全衛生管理知識。在勞工安全衛生教育訓練主要的建立原因為工業生產及設備日趨繁多複雜,大部份的職業災害是導因於「人為因素」,人為因素中不安全的行為占了百分之八十以上。而安全衛生管理人員教育訓練制度的比較中發現我國的訓練機構是由行政院勞工委員會辦理,但中國大陸方面一致由國務院監督,但是教育訓練制度都是由企業自行辦理,也是由長官傳承給部屬的制度,此種制度所訓練出來的人才也許每間企業都會不一樣,但是相對的也是因材施教,也許能更符合企業的需求,根據中華人民共和國勞工安全衛生教育管理規定法規規定可分為生產崗位職工安全教育、管理人員安全教育以及組織管理
    三大教育。由此也發現中國大陸在新進員工進廠前之職前訓練需要到40小時較我國的3小時特殊作業人員增列3小時還要落實,但我國重視在日常生活中之持續教育訓練,所以勞工每年均再接受勞工安全衛生教育訓練且安全衛生人員均須接受勞工委員會認定之回訓課程,以落實職場安全衛生觀念。兩岸勞工職業災害補償制度規定的比較發現我國在職災補償(補助)部分共有六大項較優於中國大陸對於勞工只有三大項之補償,我國在職災勞工保護法除勞動基準法及勞工保險條例給予勞工職業災害保障外,提供職災勞工補充性之保障,補助對象不再侷限於已參加勞保職災勞工而是擴大至未參加勞工保險勞工發生職災事故之勞工。中國大陸希望提供完善“預防—保險(補償)—康復”的工傷保險體系。但工傷保險的覆蓋率很低,缺乏有效的企業繳費措施以及職業安全與衛生權的法律保護的技術性、投入保障及職業傷害防範等措施不夠具體,缺乏操作性,所以目前很難達到所要求的全面地、系統地預防職業事故和職業病;職業災害補償制度不完善,還沒有勞動力康復與重建的概念。
    In this research the study focused on the differences of laws of occupational safety and health between the Cross-strait. First, we made the comparison to the safety and health management of government organization by schema aspects. The highest government Department in Taiwan is the executive yuan and in China continental is the State Council. China continental apparently pay the mostly attention on the mine security part, and Taiwan is focused on education and labor safety and health. And the safety and health management system in institutions in Taiwan also more fine than in China continental. The safety and health management system in institutions in Taiwan was divided into three class, first class career of institutions (significantly risk career), second class career of institutions (medium risk career), and third class career of institutions (low risk career), it should set safety and health qualified person according to the provisions of Article. Alternately, in China continental there were only divided into two categories, 300 people above and below. And the certificate licenses system was less perfect than the Taiwan system. In China continental most safety and health management persons are trained by training & education center and getting qualify. It is really different with Taiwan, In China continental the education & training centers are divided into four levels. The last difference of safety and health management education & training system is in Taiwan the education & training institutions is monitored by the Council Of Labor Affairs Executive Yuan, but in China continental was consistent by the State Council, and education & training system is handling by enterprise itself, this species education & training system between enterprise may foster its abilities fulfilled the enterprise’s needs.
    關聯: 校內外均一年後公開 ,學年度:99,125頁
    Appears in Collections:[職業安全衛生系(含防災所)] 博碩士論文

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