本研究主要探討國小三年級學童對「敵人」意象認知的類型與意涵。過去學者認為課程中傳遞的「反共復國」的敵我意識為潛在課程的一部份，但學者並未提出確切的證據證實潛在課程如何影響學童的認知。研究者分析了六十六位學童的作文，並歸納出國小學童認知的「敵人」類型主要有三大類別：自然界的事物或現象，如蟑螂、鬼；學校內的人事物，如同學、功課；與生活相關的人事物，如醫生或兄弟姊妹。國小學童認知的敵人意涵以與他們切身相關的議題為主，多數學童認為粗心或懶惰是他們最大的敵人，此現象反應了目前國小學童可能面臨的課業壓力。而另一個有趣的現象是，國小學童將班上不同性別的男女生視為自己的敵人，反應出國小學童間性別的現象仍然存在。雖然學者認為課程中的反共意識將影響學童對敵人的認知，但是從本研究的分析中，僅有少數學童提及他們的敵人是日本人，課程中的政治意識型態對學童造成的潛在影響仍值得進一步探討。其次，學者建議具有敵意的人通常也有厭惡他人或傷害他人的人格特質，但是從國小學童認知的「敵人」意象分析中，無法證實具有敵意的人必然有傷害他人的傾向，這可能與國小學童認知的敵人類型有關，本研究中國小學童認知的敵人類型為造成他們壓力、恐懼或不愉快的事物。第三，雖然國小學童覺察老師對他們學習成果不理想採取各種嚴厲的方式，但是卻沒有國小學童將老師視為敵人，相反地，他們認為應該聽從老師的話，才能在課業上有所進步。最後，研究者建議應在正式課程中融人和平教育的議題，國小教師應理解學童認知的敵人與學校中衝突可能產生的形式，教導學生如何紓解課業的壓力、並減少與同性或異性同儕之間的衝突對立。 The research focused on the primary school children's images on enemies. The‘anti-China’ideology was considered to be one type of hidden curriculum which may cause impact on children's recognition of ‘enemies’. However, this research will explore whether the Taiwanese children recognise‘China’as their enemies.Sixty-six pupils' articles titled "My Enemies" were analysed and three main categories were generated: the objects or phenomenon in the nature, such as ghost; people or events in school, such as classmates or homework; people or events related to their personal life, such as doctors or brother-and-slster.Most pupils considered laziness or carelessness is their biggest enemies. It reflected the possible learning pressure the puplis may confront. Besides, primary school pupils also think the classmates of the opposite sex were their enemies. It showed that gender segregation still exists among primaryschool pupils.Although‘anti-China’ideology was considered to influence pupils images on enemies, it was not supported in this research. Nevertheless, only few pupils mentioned that Japanese were‘enemies’. Hence, it may need a further study to support similar statements. Puils images on enemies tended to be someone or somenon they dislike, frighten. or feel unpleasant. However, the pupils would not try to ‘destroy’ them. Even though pupils recognised that the teachers took many strict ways to promote their grades, no pupils would consider their teachers to be ‘enemies’. On the contrary, they thought they should listen to their teachers in order to improve their grades.The researcher suggested that peace education should be included into the formal curriculum.Primary school teachers need to recognise pupils' images on enemies and the possible conflict among pupils. They could teach pupils how to release their learning pressure, and try to teach them how to reduce the conflict among pupils.