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    標題: 黏劑影響化粧品之流變探討
    A study on the rheological behavior of cosmetics by thickeners
    作者: 陳立賢
    Li-hsien Chen
    貢獻者: 洪偉章
    嘉南藥理科技大學:化妝品科技研究所
    關鍵字: 流變學
    黏度
    界面活性劑
    化妝品
    黏劑
    Cosmetics
    Viscosity
    Surfactant
    and Thickener
    Rheology
    日期: 2007
    上傳時間: 2008-12-03 11:17:32 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 化妝品的流變學與其穩定性及表現有很大的相關性,主要來自物理特性的改變,適當的流變特性是生產、運輸、儲存及使用質感的保證,更是設計和生產的重要參數。本研究在此針對界面活性劑與化妝品各組成份間相互複配對黏度之協同或干擾效應做相關的研究探討,觀察其彼此的相關性及做為化妝品研究開發人員選用類似原料配製產品時的黏度參考依據。
    本研究分為兩部分,第一部分為乳化及清潔劑型配製,乳化化妝品使用非離子型界面活性劑(Glyceryl stearate and steareth-25 and Ceteth-20 and Stearyl Alcohol)及高分子(Xanthan Gum)調配,探討乳化劑及高分子濃度對乳液黏度的影響;清潔化妝品使用陰離子型界面活性劑(Sodium laureth sulfate,SLES)、兩性離子型界面活性劑(Cocoamidopropyl Betaine,CAPB)、陽離子型界面活性劑(Cetrimonium Chloride,CTAC)及電解質(NaCl)調配,探討界面活性劑及電解質交叉複配之黏度變化。第二部份為乳化化粧品經溫度老化及離心,探討其穩定性。黏度量測使用圓錐-平板式黏度計(Cone-and-plate viscometer)依劑型流變特性選擇特定的轉子(Spindle)、設定溫度為25 ℃及不同的切剪速率(0.2 ~ 50 sec-1)進行黏度量測。
    在本研究結果顯示1)乳液均呈現切稀性之特性,黏度隨著乳化劑的濃度增加而增加,當乳液乳化劑含量在3.00~7.00 %時,施予切剪速率0.2 sec-1,黏度差約5~10 %(500~1000 mPa.s),含量7.00~10.00 %時,差異達300 %(約22500 mPa.s);2)高分子濃度對黏度之影響:含有濃度高於0.75 % Xanthan Gum的乳液,除黏度提高,經老化後也呈現較穩定狀態。3)不同的界面活性劑與NaCl複配的洗劑,結果顯示陰離子型洗劑中NaCl濃度為4.00 %時,呈現牛頓流體行為,高於此濃度後,切剪速率小於2 sec-1流變行為呈切稠性,大於2 sec-1後,則呈現切稀性,NaCl濃度7.00 %時,呈現最大黏度;於陽離子型洗劑中其NaCl濃度若高於7.00 %時,黏度增加一個對數單位,呈現牛頓流體特性,添加到10.00 %後流變性變成切稀性;添加兩性離子型界面活性劑(Cocoamidopropyl Betaine,CAPB)濃度5.00 %在陰離子型洗劑時,流變行為由切稠性變成切稀性,其濃度不影響陽離子型洗劑的流變行為,皆呈現牛頓流體特性。陰、陽兩離子界面活性劑複配,陽離子型界面活性劑(Cetrimonium Chloride,CTAC)的濃度為5.00與10.00 %時,洗劑黏度比未添加CTAC時低,高於10 %後,外觀呈乳白色,近似乳化體,皆呈現切稀性流體特性。
    由以上之研究結果,得知界面活性劑與電解質及高分子對化妝品的流變影響,包括可降低乳液中乳化劑的使用量,經由高分子提高其穩定性及可提供清潔化粧品配製時的黏度參考依據。
    In recent years many cosmetics research studies are focused on rheology, whose main idea is how physical properties change by chemical interaction, the outcome of which impact the stability and overall performance of cosmetics. The rheological properties of a liquid cosmetic are an important parameter for the design and production of cosmetics, and as such, appropriate rheological behavior can guarantee a product’s quality when produced, preserved, transported, and utilized. In this paper, we will focus on the surfactant where additives interaction may result in a synergistic effect, but where interference is also possible.
    First at all, we will talk about emulsion and cleanser formulates, the emulsion cosmetics uses of the non-ionic surfactant (Glyceryl stearate and steareth-25 and Ceteth-20 and Stearyl Alcohol), and polymer mixes. In addition we will discuss how emulsifier and polymer concentration influence emulsion viscosity. The clean cosmetics use anion surfactant (Sodium laureth sulfate, SLES), the amphoteric surfactant (Cocoamidopropyl Betaine, CAPB), the cationic surfactant (Cetrimonium Chloride, CTAC), and electrolyte mixes. We will then discuss surfactant and electrolyte concentrations and how they influence cleanser viscosity.
    Secondly, we will discuss the stability of emulsion cosmetics by means of the accelerate-aging method as well as the temperature and centrifugation method. Viscosity gauging uses the Cone-and-plate viscometer choice specific spindle (CP52 and CPE40); We measure viscosity using temperature is 25℃ and several shear rates are 0.2~50 sec-1.
    1) Studies on the rheology of O/W emulsion cosmetics showed that its viscosity increased with increasing emulsifier concentrations, moreover, viscosity of emulsions decreased when shear rates increased. If emulsifier concentrations are in the 3.00~7.00 % range, viscosity differs about 5~10 % (500~1000 mPa.s). If increased to 7.00~10.00 %, viscosity clearly increases up to three times that. 2) If adding 3.00 % emulsifier and 0.75 % Xanthan Gum, despite the viscosity increase, there was after aging where it appeared the emulsion system was the stable phenomenon. 3) Studies on the rheology of cleanser using NaCl concentrations of 4.00 % in the anionic cleanser show a Newtonian behavior but around 4.00 % and under a shear rate 2 sec-1 show a shear-thickening. When shear rate is above 2 sec-1, shear-thinning is shown. The viscosity maximum when NaCl equals 7.00 %. Using NaCl concentrations of about 7.00 % in the cationic cleanser, viscosity increased ten times and displayed a Newtonian behavior, however increasing it to 10.00 % showed a shear-thinning behavior. CAPB concentrations of 5.00 % in the anionic cleanser show a rheological behavior form shear-thickening change to shear-thinning. CAPB don’t influence rheological behavior in a cationic cleanser. All of them did display Newtonian behavior. When anionic and cationic surfactant is mixing, CTAC concentrations of 5.00 and 10.00 % do show phase separation after centrifugation. With CTAC concentrations above 10.00 %, the appearance is milky white in color, displaying similar like emulsion and showing a shear-thinning behavior.
    In this research, surfactant with polymer and electrolytes influence the viscosity of cosmetics. In addition, emulsion cosmetics can be increased in stability and emulsifier cost can be decreased and as such, these studies can be offered to the industry as a reference point of how to add ingredients effectively in the production of cleansers.
    關聯: 校內校外均不公開
    Appears in Collections:[化妝品應用與管理系(所)] 博碩士論文

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