Background: Renal hyperparathyroidism is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) characterized by elevated parathyroid hormone levels secondary to derangements in the homeostasis of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D. Rapid correction of severe and prolonged hyperparathyroidism by surgical parathyroidectomy in long-term hemodialysis patients occasionally causes hungry bone syndrome. These patients then exhibit severe and long-lasting secondary or tertiary hyperparathyroidism with high bone turnover. Case presentation: We report a case of recurrent tertiary hyperparathyroidism after total parathyroidectomy due to supernumerary parathyroid gland in a patient with long-term hemodialysis. Supplementation with intravenous calcium, oral calcium, and vitamin D immediately after patient surgery helps to prevent and treat hungry bone syndrome. Conclusions: We should prompt a search for the supernumerary parathyroid glands in ESRD patients, who have recurrent or persistent hyperparathyroidism after total parathyroidectomy. ESRD patients are more likely to develop hungry bone syndrome after parathyroidectomy. Prevention and treatment of hungry bone syndrome may be required after ectopic parathyroidectomy in clinical practice.