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    標題: 《禮記.學記》「學學半」新詮 --教與學的理念探究
    The New interpretation of the〝Xué xué bàn〞in Book of Rites Records of Educationl-The idea Exploration of Teaching and Learning
    作者: 陳海雄
    貢獻者: 儒學研究所
    汪中文
    關鍵字: 學記
    學學半
    翻轉教育
    全人教育
    終身學習
    日期: 2018
    上傳時間: 2019-02-27 16:47:58 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 《禮記.學記》的「學學半」一詞,從文義的詮釋來看,「學,然後知不足」、「教,然後知困」,前者指的是學的歷程,後者指的是教的歷程,不管是學或教,其歷程都是一種實踐,也都是一種學習,「知不足」與「知困」兩者相互影響,也相互促進,無論是從教與學的活動,或從師與生的雙主體,亦或從人與人之間,人與環境之間,都是互為激發、互為長進的過程,因此從「學學半」一詞可以得出「教學相長」的理念與意涵。
    然若仔細關照「學學半」一詞背後所潛藏的深刻蘊涵,便能夠挖掘出更具體且完整的教育理念,教育的目的也是學習的目的--就是「化民成俗」,為國家培養人才,而不是訓練可供使用的「人力」,這個人才除了專業外還具備人文素養、前瞻性與創造性的特質,是他人無法取代的「這個人」,若是只會專業,只能聽命、服從的「一個人」,往往會被取而代之。然而要讓國家興盛發達,需要的正是像這樣的人才,所以〈學記〉強調「建國君民,教學為先」,說明教育的功能就是要去培育人才,使人民整體的素養提升,形成一種風範,一種文化,一種品味。所以由「學學半」演繹出來的學習與教育理念,足以影響國家整體的發展,這就是本論文關注的重點。
    〈學記〉主張「以人為本」,不管是學或教,都是學,都表達極為深切的人文關懷,「士先志」者,說明讀書人必先立志,從內心的自覺、自主開始,方能決定自己將來的方向,而翻轉思維說的便是這樣的理念,讓學生自主學習,教育是為了學習而存在,《周易.蒙卦》卦辭說:「匪我求童蒙,童蒙求我。」最好的教育狀態是學生發自內心對學習的渴望,而不是由老師來求學生受教,只有如此,才能發乎主動而無時不學、無處不學,而使自己成為一個「大道不器」的君子。本文即從「學學半」一詞的文義詮釋開展,進而發闡「學」與「教」各自的體系與脈絡,最後則落實在「全人教育」與「終身教育」上,進而創造一個人人都幸福、快樂的文化環境與氛圍。
    〝Xué xué bàn〞(學學半)is the principle that teaching and learning grow together, Whether it is learning or teaching, its history is a practice, it is also a kind of learning. From the activities of teaching and learning, or from the dual subjects of teachers and students, or from person to person, between people and the environment, they are mutually excited and mutually advanced.

    The purpose of education is also the purpose of learning-It is to cultivate talents, improve the overall quality of the people, form a style, a culture, a taste. Therefore, the learning and education concepts derived from 〝Xué xué bàn〞 can affect the overall development of the country. This is the focus of this paper.

    Book of Rites Records of Educationl advocates "people-oriented", Expressing profound humanistic care, Scholars must first set their minds, and start from the inner self-consciousness and self-determination to determine their own ambitions. Flip thinking is the student-centered learning style' Education is to let students craving their desire for learning, rather than asking teachers to learn. Only then, in order to be active, to learn from time to time, to learn everywhere, and to become a person with high heart, great bureaucracy, and accessibility. Therefore, the interpretation of the meaning of the term 〝Xué xué bàn〞is carried out. finally, it is implemented in "full-person education" and "lifelong education",and create a cultural environment where everyone is happy .
    關聯: 電子全文公開日期:2018-07-31,學年度:106, 頁
    Appears in Collections:[儒學研究所] 博碩士論文

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