本研究目的在探討台南市某國小學生體適能現況之影響，以中高年級學生為研究對象，利用學生上體育課時間作體適能檢測，包含身體質量指數、柔軟度、肌耐力、爆發力、心肺適能施測，以利本研究資料蒐集之完整性，並從中探討參與運動性社團之學生體適能狀況。所得資料以SPSS進行描述性統計、獨立樣本t檢定、單因子變異數分析進行統計資料分析，所得結果，四年級生身體質量皆偏為過輕，六年級生有肥胖問題。研究結論：男生體適能表現皆比女生優異；不同年齡學生之體適能成績，在身體質量指數、柔軟度、肌耐力方面，皆達顯著水準(P<.05)；爆發力、心肺適能兩項則未達顯著水準(P>.05)。參與運動性社團之學生體適能皆無顯著差異(P>.05)。藉此提出建議以提供學校相關單位，及後續研究者作為參考。 The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence on present physical fitness of an elementary school in Tainan City. The subjects were middle and upper graders, they received physical fitness tests during PE class, including body mass index、flexibility、muscular endurance、explosive power、cardiovascular endurance , in order to collect the study data completely, and to investigate the physical fitness performance of the students in sports clubs. The collected data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics, independent-samples t-test, one-way anova with SPSS. The results of this study showed as follows: the body mass of fourth graders all tend to underweight, sixth graders have obese problem. Results: male have better physical fitness than girls; students of different age have varied performances of physical fitness, their body mass index, flexibility and muscular endurance have reached significant level(P<.05), there are no significant variance (P>.05) in explosive power、cardiovascular endurance. The physical fitness of students in sports clubs has no significant variance (P>.05). This study is suggested for school administrative units and future researchers for further reference.