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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.cnu.edu.tw/handle/310902800/31863


    標題: 溫泉場域危害性氣體與溫泉泉質關聯性之研究
    Study on the Relevance of Hazardous Gases and Water Quality for Hot Spring
    作者: 王偉宏
    貢獻者: 觀光事業管理系
    甘其銓
    關鍵字: 溫泉
    危害氣體
    溫泉泉質
    Hot springs
    hazardous gases
    hot springs water quality
    日期: 2018
    上傳時間: 2019-02-27 16:46:32 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 溫泉是台灣的特色產業,由於台灣位於歐亞板塊與菲律海板塊碰撞帶上,島上地質構造複雜,因而造成豐富的溫泉資源,現在已知之溫泉徵兆區已達 150 處,除了彰化、雲林及澎湖縣地區之外,其餘各縣市皆有溫泉的分佈。
    由於溫泉是地下熱水上升至地表的最終表現,多數溫泉水溶有相當數量的氯化物、硫酸鹽、碳酸氫鹽、矽酸,少量硼酸和微量的重金屬,當高溫熱水汽化時,溶在水中的二氧化碳、硫化氫、二氧化硫、氯化氫、氨氣和微量空氣等都會離開熱水,而進入空氣中,國內、外均有因泡溫泉時吸入過多的硫化氫造成中毒之案例,其次是溫泉中的二氧化碳若釋出的量太多,又無充分的通風條件也會造成缺氧的危險。對於溫泉中所含的危害氣體之特性及所需採取之安全措施,在溫泉開發利用時是必須正視的問題,由於國內泡湯之人口明顯增加,溫泉種類繁多,而各類溫泉泉質所產生出之危害氣體,是否具有關聯性,為本研究主要探討之問題。本研究為了解台灣溫泉區之泡湯場所含之危害氣體,首先乃針對台灣不同溫泉區之場所進行甲烷、硫化氫、二氧化碳、氧氣含量與濃度進行長時間的檢測,接下來於密閉空間中,並控制於密閉與強制通風的條件之下,針對不同水質所產生之環境參數與氣體濃度進行測試與量測。
    研究結果顯示於各溫泉區的氣體量測,可以發現於各湯屋的溫泉泉溫皆控制在40~41°C,但在三個溫泉區的CH4與H2S皆無測得,反而是CO2有所不同,且以碳酸氫鹽泉的CO2濃度最高,可達1260~1309 ppm,而對應的氧氣濃度最低,只有20.7%,於現場聞到硫磺味的北投溫泉,湯屋內的H2S濃度仍為N.D.。於密閉空間內未換氣的情況下,溫度、濕度、CO2濃度會隨著時間的增加而上升,溫度增加速率為每分鐘0.05~0.067℃,濕度增加速率為每分鐘1.367~1.533%,CO2濃度增加速率為每分鐘65.97~73.7 ppm,O2濃度會隨著時間的增加而減少,減少速率為每分鐘0.13~0.17%。
    於密閉空間內強制換氣的情況下,溫度、濕度、CO2濃度會隨著時間的增加而下降,溫度增加速率為每分鐘0.04~0.147℃,濕度減少速率為每分鐘0.6~1.33%,CO2濃度減少速率為每分鐘45.3~92.57 ppm,O2濃度會隨著時間的增加而增加,增加減少速率為每分鐘0.04%。於密閉空間內有強制換氣的情況下,於自來水浸泡,受試者呼吸出的二氧化碳濃度為41,303 ppm,於硫酸鹽泉浸泡,受試者呼吸出的二氧化碳濃度為48,083 ppm,於碳酸鹽泉浸泡,受試者呼吸出的二氧化碳濃度為53,856 ppm為最高值。
    在台灣因四季氣溫差異大,尤其是在寒冷冬季裡,民眾泡溫泉驅寒之休閒活動非常盛行,但多數人因天氣寒冷而不開窗通風,如此容易導致二氧化碳積聚於室內,產生濃度過高之情形,因此自然通風的設計上也需考量四季之變化,亦須需考量到開窗之位置與大小,開窗不要過小並考慮溫泉池之設計安排、其離地高度等使其通風效果佳,以符合需求而達到室內空氣改善之效果。溫泉建築屬公共建築場合,故二氧化碳之濃度應可列入品質建議值管制,以利溫泉觀光產業趨向高品質健康環境概念。
    Hot spring industry is a characteristic Tourism property in Taiwan. Since Taiwan is located on the collision zone between the Eurasian Plate and the Philippine Sea Plate, the island has complex geological structures and thus has a wealth of hot spring resources. The number of known hot spring outcrops has reached more than 150, with the exception of Changhua, Yunlin and the Penghu County area, other counties and cities all have hot springs.
    Since hot springs are the expression of underground hot water rising to the surface, most hot springs have a considerable amount of chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, tannin, boric acid, and trace amounts of heavy metals. When high-temperature hot water vaporized, Carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, ammonia, and traces of air all leave from the hot water. There are cases of poisoning caused by excessive inhalation of hydrogen sulfide during hot springs. If the amount of carbon dioxide released is too much, insufficient ventilation can also cause the risk of oxygen deficiency. The characteristics of the hazardous gas contained in the hot springs and the safety measures to be taken are a problem that must be addressed when using hot springs. Due to the marked increase in the population of domestic bathing spas, there are many types of hot springs, and various hot spring springs produce the hazardous gas is the major issue for this study.
    In order to understand the hazardous gases contained in the hot springs in Taiwan's hot spring areas, this study first conducted a long-term test of methane, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and oxygen levels in different hot spring areas in Taiwan. Under the confined space with airtight and forced ventilation conditions, environmental parameters and gas concentrations generated by different water quality are tested and measured.
    The results are shown in the gas measurements at the various hot spring areas. It can be found that the spring temperature of the hot springs in each soup room is controlled at 40 to 41?C. However, none of the CH4 and H2S in the three hot spring areas is measured. Instead, CO2 is different. The highest concentration of CO2 in bicarbonate springs is 1260~1309 ppm, and the corresponding oxygen concentration is the lowest, only 20.7%. At the scene, the sulfur-scented Beitou hot springs are still smelling. The concentration of H2S in Tangwu is still ND. In the absence of ventilation in a confined space, the temperature, humidity, and CO2 concentration increase with time. The temperature increase rate is 0.05 to 0.067?C per minute, and the humidity increase rate is 1.367 to 1.533% per minute. CO2 The concentration increase rate is 65.97-73.7 ppm per minute, and the O2 concentration will decrease with time, with the rate of 0.13-0.17% per minute.
    In the case of forced ventilation in a confined space, the temperature, humidity, and CO2 concentration decrease with time. The temperature increase rate is 0.04 to 0.147?C per minute, and the humidity decrease rate is 0.6 to 1.33% per minute. CO2 The rate of concentration reduction was 45.3 to 92.57 ppm per minute, and the O2 concentration increased with time, with an increase rate of 0.04% per minute. In the case of forced ventilation in a confined space, the concentration of carbon dioxide breathed out by the subjects in the tap water immersion was 41,303 ppm. After soaking in sulfate springs, the concentration of carbon dioxide that the subject breathed out was 48083 ppm in the carbonate spring. When immersed, the subject's breathed out carbon dioxide concentration of 53,856 ppm was the highest value.
    In Taiwan, due to the wide variation in seasonal temperatures, especially in the cold winter, the leisure activities of the public are very popular. However, most people do not open their windows due to the cold weather. It is easy to cause carbon dioxide to accumulate indoors and produce excessive concentrations. In case of natural ventilation, the design of natural ventilation must also consider the changes of the seasons. It is also necessary to consider the location and size of the windows. The opening of the windows should not be too small and the design of the hot spring pool should be considered to improve the indoor air quality. Hot spring resort construction is a public construction occasion, so the concentration of carbon dioxide should be included in the quality of the proposed value control, in order to facilitate the hot spring tourism industry trends toward high quality and healthy environment.
    關聯: 電子全文公開日期:2018-07-03,學年度:106, 51頁
    Appears in Collections:[觀光事業管理系(含溫泉所)] 博碩士論文

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