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    標題: 中西古代教育思想比較—以孔子與蘇格拉底為例
    Comparison of Ancient Chinese and Western Educational Thoughts: Take Confucius and Socrates as Examples
    作者: 王婉馨
    貢獻者: 儒學研究所
    藍麗春
    關鍵字: 教育
    蘇格拉底
    孔子
    比較
    comparison
    education
    Socrates
    Confucius
    日期: 2018
    上傳時間: 2019-02-27 16:44:47 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 孔子和蘇格拉底分別是古代東方和西方教育的奠基者,是東西方精神文明的導師。兩人皆述而不作,未遺留下本人所撰寫的著作。他們的言行與思想均由其弟子記錄。孔子的教育思想主要集中體現在《論語》一書中。而關於蘇格拉底本人的生活經歷及學行的記載也非常稀少,故僅能透過蘇格拉底的高足柏拉圖的《對話錄》及其著作以及他的門人色諾芬的追思錄《回憶蘇格拉底》來了解、研究其教育思想。本文在立足於對教育思想釋義基礎上,總結孔子和蘇格拉底教育思想並比較其異同,進而延伸中西古代教育思想的比較,探討其對現代教育思想的啟示。  
    孔蘇二人均重視現實的人生問題,因此兩人的教育目的皆與他們的政治理念息息相關,孔子重於培養具有群體意識的君子,而蘇格拉底則著重於培養具有自我意識的思考者,兩者所因襲的文化背景之差異由此可見。兩人為改善所處時代的社會亂象、人性頹喪,均重視道德教育,然孔子主張由外在的禮樂道德規範去提升人性,蘇格拉底則主張道德本就存在人心中,要往自己的內裡去探求。兩人所採用的教學方法均是問答與啟發,但孔子同樣主張知識要從外而內去獲取,蘇格拉底則認為知識是與生俱來的,需得認識自己才能提升知識。
    Confucius and Socrates were the founders of ancient oriental and western education, respectively. Both of them described without writing, left behind nothing wrote by themselves.Their deeds and thoughts are recorded by their disciples. Confucius's educational thoughts are mainly embodied in the Analects of Confucius.Socrates' own life experience and academic records are also very rare, so only through Socrates' High Plato 's Dialogue and his writings and his servant Xenophon memoirs Recalling the Soviet Union Grassy "to understand and study their educational thinking. Based on the interpretation of educational thought, this article summarizes the Confucian and Socratic educational thoughts and compares their similarities and differences, thus extending the comparison between the ancient Chinese and Western educational thoughts and exploring their implications for modern educational thoughts.  Confucius and Socrates all pay attention to the real life problems, so both of the educational purposes are closely related to their political philosophy, Confucius emphasized on cultivating a group of gentlemen, while Socrates focused on cultivating self-conscious thinkers, This shows the difference between the cultural background of the two can be seen. In order to improve social chaos and human nature in their own times, the two attach great importance to moral education. However, since Confucius advocated the promotion of human nature by the external ethics of courtesy, Socrates claimed that morality should exist in people's hearts Inside to explore. The teaching methods adopted by both of them were both quizzes and inspiration, but Confucius also claimed that knowledge should be acquired from outside to inside. Socrates believed that knowledge is innate and that knowledge must be acquired before it can be learned.
    關聯: 電子全文公開日期:2023-02-01,學年度:106, 136頁
    Appears in Collections:[儒學研究所] 博碩士論文

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