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    標題: Butyrate influences intracellular levels of adenine and adenine derivatives in the fungus Penicillium restrictum
    作者: Zutz, Christoph
    Chiang, Yi Ming
    Faehnrich, Bettina
    Bacher, Markus
    Hellinger, Roland
    Kluger, Bernhard
    Wagner, Martin
    Strauss, Joseph
    Rychli, Kathrin
    貢獻者: Univ Vet Med Vienna, Inst Milk Hyg
    Res Platform Bioact Microbial Metabolites Bioreso
    Univ Southern Calif, Sch Pharm, Dept Pharmacol & Pharmaceut Sci
    Chia Nan Univ Pharm & Sci, Dept Pharm
    Univ Vet Med Vienna, Inst Anim Nutr & Funct Plant Cpds
    BOKU Univ Nat Resources & Life Sci, Dept Chem, Div Chem Renewables
    BOKU Univ Nat Resources & Life Sci, Dept Agrobiotechnol IFA Tulln
    BOKU Univ Nat Resources & Life Sci Vienna, Dept Appl Genet & Cell Biol
    關鍵字: Penicillium restrictum
    butyrate
    adenine
    adenosine
    hypoxanthine
    cAMP
    日期: 2017
    上傳時間: 2018-11-30 15:54:20 (UTC+8)
    出版者: Elsevier Gmbh, Urban & Fischer Verlag
    摘要: Butyrate, a small fatty acid, has an important role in the colon of ruminants and mammalians including the inhibition of inflammation and the regulation of cell proliferation. There is also growing evidence that butyrate is influencing the histone structure in mammalian cells by inhibition of histone deacetylation. Butyrate shows furthermore an antimicrobial activity against fungi, yeast and bacteria, which is linked to its toxicity at a high concentration. In fungi there are indications that butyrate induces the production of secondary metabolites potentially via inhibition of histone deacetylases. However, information about the influence of butyrate on growth, primary metabolite production and metabolism, besides lipid catabolism, in fungi is scarce. We have identified the filamentous fungus Penicillium (P.) restrictum as a susceptible target for butyrate treatment in an antimicrobial activity screen. The antimicrobial activity was detected only in the mycelium of the butyrate treated culture. We investigated the effect of butyrate ranging from low (0.001 mM) to high (30 mM), potentially toxic, concentrations on biomass and antimicrobial activity. Butyrate at high concentrations (3 and 30 mM) significantly reduced the fungal biomass. In contrast P. restrictum treated with 0.03 mM of butyrate showed the highest antimicrobial activity. We isolated three antimicrobial active compounds, active against Staphylococcus aureus, from P. restrictum cellular extracts treated with butyrate: adenine, its derivate hypoxanthine and the nucleoside derivate adenosine. Production of all three compounds was increased at low butyrate concentrations. Furthermore we found that butyrate influences the intracellular level of the adenine nucleoside derivate cAMP, an important signalling molecule in fungi and various organisms. In conclusion butyrate treatment increases the intracellular levels of adenine and its respective derivatives. (C) 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
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