|摘要: ||高雄港是毗鄰台灣最大之工業城市－高雄市。至今，之生活污水尚未經過處理就直接排入河中。此外，位於高雄市或周邊之幾個工業園區（如化學製造，油漆和染料，金屬加工，電子，造紙和板材，汽車電鍍和加工行業）將大量未經處理和處理過之廢水排入河川中，最終到達高雄港。在高雄港口沉積物中發現了微量金屬、營養物質、有機碳、多氯聯苯(PCB)、戴奧辛物質、多環芳香烴(PAH)與有機氯農藥等污染物，這可能對海洋生態系統和環境品質產生嚴重之影響。生物過濾程序在對於從污染沉積物中去除重金屬時，是具有高度效率、成本效益及環境友善性之替代方法。金屬溶解在生物過濾程序中，歸因於硫氧化細菌之氧化與酸化。本研究進行了一系列實驗，研究以生物過濾程序從高雄港污染沉積物中去除重金屬物質之可能性。同時，將從港口沉積物適應之土著菌所接種之生物過濾程序性能與來自受到污染土壤以前所適應之細菌進行比較。在這種生物過濾程序中清楚地觀察到重金屬之溶解。結果表明，土著菌重金屬去除效率高於60％，而外源細菌可以將所有重金屬之去除效率提高到100％。 經過30天之反應後，重金屬在生物過濾程序中之去除效率最高，其參數為10 g/L之港口沉澱物、5 g/L之硫磺與10％(v/v)受污染土壤適應之接種劑。發現生物過濾程序中，金屬去除之速率與效率會隨著沉積物固體含量之增加而降低。|
Kaohsiung Harbor is adjacent to Kaohsiung City, which is the largest industrial city in Taiwan. Today, domestic wastewater is still directly discharged to rivers without any treatment. Moreover, there are several industrial parks (e.g., chemical manufacturing, paint and dye, metal processing, electronic, paper and board mills, motor vehicle plating, and finishing industries) located in or around Kaohsiung City discharging a significant amount of untreated and treated wastewaters into the rivers and ultimately to the Kaohsiung Harbor. Many pollutants such as metals, nutrients, organic matter, PCB, dioxins, PAH and organ-chloride pesticides are found in Kaohsiung harbor sediment that may have serious impacts on the marine ecosystem and environmental quality. The bioleaching process is an environmentally friendly, efficient and cost-effective alternative for removing heavy metals from contaminated sediments. Metal solubilization in the bioleaching process is attributed to the oxidation and the acidification by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. In this study, a series of experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility of bioleaching process for removing heavy metals from the contaminated sediments of Kaohsiung harbor. Meanwhile, the performance of the bioleaching process inoculated with indigenous bacteria acclimated from the harbor sediment was compared with that of previously acclimated bacteria from contaminated soils. The solubilization of heavy metals was clearly observed in this bioleaching process. The results showed that the heavy metals removal efficiency of indigenous bacteria was higher than 60 %, the exogenous bacteria can remove all heavy metals up to 100%. After 30 days of reaction, the highest removal efficiency of heavy metals in bioleaching processes was achieved with the parameters of 10 g/l of harbor sediment, 5 g/l of sulfur and 10% (v/v) of inoculants acclimated from contaminated soils. The rate and efficiency of metal removal in the bioleaching process were found to be decreased with an increase of sediment solids content.