|摘要: ||台灣棗子又稱“台灣青棗”或“台灣蜜棗”，別名為棗子或棗仔，原產地於印度錫蘭，為鼠李科(Rhamnaceae)半落葉小喬木。係台灣農業部門經不斷實驗改良開發成功的一種新興水果。台灣棗子果實皮薄肉脆，清香多汁。棗子（Jujube）屬熱帶植物，性喜高溫，台灣地區引進後，主要因南部地區適合栽培，故將蜜棗栽培地南遷，早期的果品小而酸澀，不受重視，後來經過不斷地品種改良和變種選拔，質脆清甜多汁，最受消費者喜愛，市場的需求量跟著快速提高，現在已成為台灣南部地區之重要農特產之一。受限於產季上的因素，在每年冬季蜜棗會開始大量出產，基於蜜棗的產季集中於每年11~3月，故容易在產季發生產量過多的問題，這時新鮮的蜜棗採收後會因為環境的影響而快速後熟，使蜜棗無法在室溫及冷藏的情況下保存過久，為了維持蜜棗其經濟價值故將蜜棗進行糖漬加工做為蜜餞（Candied fruit）以延長保存期限及其經濟價值。由於蜜棗中的抗氧化成分與貯存的環境因素有著相當大的關聯，故本研究將探討棗子蜜餞在0、180及365天不同條件的貯存下，對於棗子蜜餞之抗氧化能力影響及生菌數影響。根據實驗結果顯示，室溫貯存第0、180、365天，冷藏貯存第0、180、365天，冷凍貯存第0、180、365天的棗子蜜餞水分含量分別為32%、26%、30%、35%、25%、31%、32%、24%、29%；室溫貯存第0、180、365天，冷藏貯存第0、180、365天，冷凍貯存第0、180、365天的棗子蜜餞粗灰分含量分別為0.12%、0.13%、0.12%、0.12%、0.14%、0.15%、 0.14%、0.14%、0.13%；室溫貯存第0、180、365天，冷藏貯存第0、180、365天，冷凍貯存第0、180、365天的棗子蜜餞粗蛋白含量分別為0.15%、0.16%、0.35%、0.54%、0.43%、0.37%、0.68%、0.65%、0.66%；室溫貯存第0、180、365天，冷藏貯存第0、180、365天，冷凍貯存第0、180、365天的棗子蜜餞粗脂肪含量分別為1.46%、1.32%、1.47%、1.36%、1.47%、1.35%、1.46%、1.44%、1.49%；室溫貯存第0、180、365天，冷藏貯存第0、180、365天，冷凍貯存第0、180、365天的棗子蜜餞粗纖維含量分別為1.44%、1.30%、1.44%、1.46%、1.42%、1.41%、1.45%、1.46%、1.42%；室溫貯存第0、180、365天，冷藏貯存第0、180、365天，冷凍貯存第0、180、365天的棗子蜜餞碳水化合物含量分別為63.91%、71.06%、66.37%、61.4%、71.19%、65.47%、64.22%、71.45%、66.4%，在總分含量測定結果顯示放置第0天之室溫、冷藏、冷凍棗子蜜餞其酚類含量分別為18.25、16.39、14.09(mg gallic acid/g)，放置第180天之室溫、冷藏、冷凍棗子蜜餞其酚類含量分別為8.28、7.63、8.04(mg gallic acid/g)，放置第365天之室溫、冷藏、冷凍棗子蜜餞其酚類含量分別為20.36、18.90、18.80(mg gallic acid/g)；總類黃酮測定結果顯示不論在任何一個貯存條件，因為長時間的加熱，使得蜜餞中的類黃酮皆無法測得；在生菌數測定，放置室溫、冷藏、冷凍1天的棗子蜜餞及冷藏、冷凍放置180及365天的棗子蜜餞生菌數含量皆符合衛服部生菌數標準，但室溫貯存180及365天的棗子蜜餞其菌數含量明顯較高；棗子蜜餞萃取物還原力測定結果顯示不論是放置室溫(0、180、365天)、冷藏(0、180、365天)、冷凍(0、180、365天)之棗子蜜餞其還原力皆無顯著性的差異；清除1,1-二苯基-2-苦味基團能力之測定結果顯示隨著濃度的上升，棗子蜜餞萃取物的清除1,1-二苯基-2-苦味基團能力會有良好的效果，在濃度20mg/ml時清除率可以達到80%-90%；螯合亞鐵離子能力測定結果顯示棗子蜜餞萃取物濃度大約在5mg/ml就有良好的螯合效果，不論任何貯存條件的棗子蜜餞萃取物其螯合力皆達到90%以上；在清除ABTS自由基的測定結果顯示，不論何種貯存條件之棗子蜜餞萃取物濃度在5mg/ml皆具有良好的清除ABTS自由基能力。|
Taiwan jujube also known as "Taiwanqingzao" or "Taiwan candied" origin in India Ceylon, as buckthorn (Rhamnaceae) semi-deciduous small tree. Department of Taiwan's agricultural sector through the continuous improvement of the experiment successfully developed a new fruit. Taiwan jujube fruit Roucui thin, fragrant and juicy. Dates (Jujube) tropical plants, likes the high temperature, after the introduction of the Taiwan region, mainly in the south cultivation, small and sour fruit early, neglected, and later through continuous improvement of varieties and varieties selection, crisp sweet and juicy, most consumers, along with the rapid increase in market demand, has now become one of the major agricultural products of the region. Fresh candied after harvest because of the impact on the environment and the rapid ripening that dates can not be saved at room temperature for too long, due to the concentration on 11 dates through March each year of the production season, it is easy to yield too many problems occurred in the production season in order to maintain its economic value it will candied dates (candied fruit) processed to extend shelf life and its economic value. Due dates in antioxidants and storage of environmental factors has considerable relevance, so the study will examine the dates candied fruit in 0 , 180 and 365 days storage at different times, the dates candied fruit for antioxidant capacity of influence. According to the experimental results show that the first 0,180,365 stored at room temperature Day, the first refrigerated storage days 0,180,365, 0,180,365 stored frozen first day dates preserves the moisture content was 32%, 26%, 30% 35%, 25%, 31%, 32%, 24%, 29%; 0,180,365 first day storage at room temperature, refrigerated storage first day 0,180,365, 0,180,365 stored frozen first day candied dates crude ash contents were 0.12%, 0.13%, 0.12%, 0.12%, 0.14%, 0.15%, 0.14%, 0.14%, 0.13%; 0,180,365 first day storage at room temperature, refrigerated storage 0, 180,365 days, and stored frozen 0,180,365 first day candied dates crude protein contents were 0.15%, 0.16%, 0.35%, 0.54%, 0.43%, 0.37%, 0.68%, 0.65%, 0.66%; chamber the first day of the storage temperature 0,180,365, 0,180,365 the first day of refrigerated storage, cryopreservation 0,180,365 first day candied dates crude fat contents were 1.46%, 1.32%, 1.47%, 1.36%, 1.47 %, 1.35%, 1.46%, 1.44%, 1.49%; 0,180,365 first day storage at room temperature, refrigerated storage first day 0,180,365, 0,180,365 stored frozen first day of the dates candied crude fiber content respectively, 1.44%, 1.30%, 1.44%, 1.46%, 1.42%, 1.41%, 1.45%, 1.46%, 1.42%; 0,180,365 first day storage at room temperature, refrigerated storage 0,180,365 first day, the first day of the 0,180,365 stored frozen candied dates carbohydrate content were 63.91%, 71.06%, 66.37%, 61.4%, 71.19%, 65.47%, 64.22%, 71.45%, 66.4%, the content of the measurement result in the total score display 0 days at room temperature, chilled, frozen dates preserves its phenolic contents were 18.25,16.39,14.09 (mg gallic acid / g), 180 days at room temperature, chilled, frozen dates preserves its phenolic content respectively 8.28,7.63,8.04 (mg gallic acid / g), place the first 365 days of room temperature, chilled, frozen dates preserves its phenolic contents were 20.36,18.90,18.80 (mg gallic acid / g); total flavonoids the measurement results show whether in any storage conditions, because prolonged heating, making preserves flavonoids are not be measured; measured in the number of microorganisms, placed at room temperature, chilled, frozen one day the dates candied fruit and refrigerated, frozen place candied dates and number of microorganisms content 180 365 days are in compliance with health standards Hattori number of microorganisms, but stored at room temperature 180 and 365 days of the dates candied their bacteria content was significantly higher; the dates candied fruit extracts reducing power measurement results show whether place room temperature (0,180,365 days), refrigerated (0,180,365 days), all without refrigeration (0,180,365 days) the dates candied reducing power of significant differences; 1,1-diphenyl Clear the measurement results bitterness-2 group with the ability to display the rising concentration clears, candied dates have the ability to extract the bitterness of 1,1-diphenyl-2-yl group good results, at a concentration of 20mg / ml at clearance rate can reach 80% -90%; ferrous ion chelating ability assay showed the dates candied fruit extract at a concentration of about 5mg / ml had a good chelating effect, regardless of the dates candied fruit extract any storage conditions which are chelating force more than 90%; the measurement results show clear ABTS radical, no matter what the dates candied fruit extract concentration of storage conditions at 5mg / ml are good ABTS radical scavenging ability.