|摘要: ||酒精是一種古老的飲品，兼具原料與成品特性，經濟價值高，也是一高遠景的傳統產業。酒精儲槽區如發生火災爆炸一般都相當慘重，影響人民生命財產安全。酒精製程中之槽車酒精裝卸作業、調和室收酒精作業及酒精調和作業等，極可能產生重大危害，其主要災害類型有火災、火災爆炸、酒精洩漏、墜落及感電等，其中以火災爆炸最嚴重。製程安全是確保獲利的最佳保障，因許多工業事故多是不適當的辨識及評估所引起。工作安全分析 (Job Safety Analysis, JSA) 是一套簡單且直接的危害辨識方法，也是近年來在國際常使用的風險管理工具之一。作業風險整合軟體 (Operational Risk Management Integration Tools , ORMIT)，主要功能在將人工作業分析模式轉為電腦輔助分析模式，以進行作業風險管理各項步驟（如，危險識別、風險評估、風險控制、決策、執行、督導與檢討）。本研究以南部某酒廠的酒精製造工場為研究對象，嘗試?用JSA與ORMIT軟體分別探討酒精製程中，槽車酒精裝卸作業、調和室收酒精作業及調和作業潛在的各項作業危害，執行危害類型辨識，並比較JSA與 ORMIT軟體的差?性，再經風險評估分析結果，得出風險排序等級，並據以建置安全作業標準 (Safety Operation Procedure, SOP)。研究結果顯示，應用JSA分析技術對酒精儲槽區裝卸及調和作業製程實施危害辨識，計辨識出110項危害，11種危害類型。主要危害類型有: 酒精洩漏(33.6%)、火災(35.5%)和火災及爆炸(6.4%)，三項合計75.5%。上述危害之風險評估結果為：高度風險有13件(11.8%)、中高度風險33件(30.0%)、中度風險36件(32.7%)及低度風險28件(25.5%)，中、高度風險明顯偏高，高度風險中又以調和室酒精調和作業有6件，所佔比例最高，應優先分配資源發展控制措施以降低其風險等級，避免重大災害發生。應用ORMIT軟體對製程實施風險評估的結果為：高度風險10件(9.1%)、中度風險67件(60.9%)、低度風險33件(30.0%)。對於整個酒精製程，雖然兩種評估技術所得到的風險等級很接近，但JSA所辨識出中度風險以上的比例較高。綜合兩種評估技術分析結果，再導入ORMIT軟體發展風險控制措施及下決策，其預期改善效果：高度及中度風險皆已降至低度風險甚至排除。三項製程平均風險指數 (Average Risk Index, ARI) 由10.22降為0.31，改善效果顯著。再將控制措施回饋至安全作業標準內，據以修正安全作業標準及制定修正版的安全作業標準，以供作業員工遵循及安全教導使用。|
Alcohol is an ancient beverage; it has characteristics of both raw materials and finished products, high economic value, and is a high prospect of traditional industries. However, if fire and/or explosion occurred in storage tank areas, people's lives and properties would be seriously affected. All loading and unloading operations of alcohol tanker car, operations of receiving alcohol in blending room, and alcohol blending operations in alcohol manufacturing processhave high potential hazards including fire, explosion, leakage of alcohol, fall, electrification, and etc. Among these, fire and explosion are the most serious. Many industrial accidents were caused by inappropriate hazard identification and assessment of hazard. Thus, process safety is the best policy to ensure the profit. Job Safety Analysis (JSA) is a simple and straightforward method for hazard identification and is one of the most commonlyused risk management tools globally in recent years.The main function of Operational Risk Integration Software (Operational Risk Management Integration Tools, ORMIT) is to transfer the manual operation mode to computer-assisted analysis model for carrying out the steps of the operational risk management (such as, hazard identification, risk assessment, risk control, decision-making, execution , supervision and review).In this study,analcohol manufacturing plant in southern Taiwan was taken as a case study. JSA and ORMITsoftware were used to identify potential hazards in alcohol manufacturing process (loading and unloading operations of alcohol tanker car, operations of receiving alcohol in blending room, and alcohol blending operations). Similarities and differences of both tools were compared with one another. The results obtained then were used for risk ranking which will be used to build the safety operation procedure (SOP).The hazards identified in loading and unloading operations of storage tank areas and blending operationswith JSA show that there are 110 hazards identified which can be classified as 11 types of hazards. The main hazard types of above include alcohol leakage (33.6%), fire (35.5%), and fires and explosions (6.4%), the three in total amount to 75.5%. The results of risk assessment of the above hazards show that there are 13 high level risk (11.8%), 33 moderate high risk of (30.0%),36 moderate risk (32.7%) , and 28low risk (25.5%). Blending room operations shows six high level risks and should be given priority to be controlled in order to avoid a major disaster. On the other hand, the hazards identified in loading and unloading operations of storage tank areas and blending operations withORMIT softwareshow that there are10high risk (9.1%), 67 moderate risk (60.9%), and 33 low risk (30.0%). Although both evaluation techniques show similar risk level, JSA identified more hazards than ORMIT did.We further combined the results of two valuation techniques and then imported them intoORMIT software to develop the control measures and decision-making. Results show that both high risk and moderate risk are mitigated to low risk, while low risk was excluded. The average risk index (ARI) of three processes was reduced to 0.31 from 10.22. This shows significant improvement. Control measuresthen feedback to the safety operating standards to correct old SOP to become a more effective SOP. This will later be used for employees to follow.