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    標題: 休閒農場碳排放之研究
    Research on the Analysis and Prediction of the Carbon Dioxide on Recreation Resorts
    作者: 王仁俊
    林子平
    黃國倉
    貢獻者: 嘉南藥理大學觀光事業管理系
    關鍵字: 休閒農場
    綠色農場
    綠色觀光
    低碳觀光
    節能減碳
    碳排放
    Recreation Resorts
    Green Farms
    Ecological Tourism
    Low Emission Tourism
    Energy Conservation and Carbon Dioxide Reducing
    CO2 Emission
    日期: 2013
    上傳時間: 2014-11-05 15:32:02 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 近年來台灣的觀光市場不但量增且質變,出境觀光佔整體觀光產值的比重逐年萎縮, 相對的入境觀光與國民旅遊卻大幅成長,入境觀光已於 2012 年正式突破 700 萬人次歷史新 高,近三年的平均成長率達 17%;國旅近三年每年平均增加 2,200 萬人次,平均年成長率高 達 12.7%,為休閒農場帶來一片榮景,許多休閒農場假日拼國旅、平日搶外籍(含陸客),2011 年台灣休閒農場總來客數較 2010 年成長 12.9%,而休閒農場的數量成長更是驚人,從 1992 年公佈休閒農業輔導管理辦法僅 31 處,至 2012 年初已達 498 家,且型態逐漸多元,從早期 觀光果園、市民農園,逐漸演變為農庄民宿、渡假農場等,亦即休閒農場的形態已經從早期 一日遊,變成多日遊之經營模式,住宿躍升為能源消耗主角之一,尤以許多豪華渡假的農場 為甚,這些標榜五星渡假的農場打著休閒農業的招牌,在荒野中構築奢華餐旅,吸引都市粉 貴來此吹空調、啖美食;此外,許多農場均強調特色主題,結合農牧、農產等,以挹注農場 營運,即畜產加工之能源消耗亦常見於特色農場中,許多休閒農場已逐漸成為碳排大戶。 值此觀光榮景,相對更應有危機意識,觀光業絕非無煙囪工業,一名投宿觀光旅館 的旅客,其用水量是一般家戶個人的 3 倍,旅館用電密度更是一般家庭的 3-5 倍;開車旅遊 滿車歡樂卻整路排碳,100 公里即排碳 25 公斤;一個人出國一趟來回飛 6000 公里排碳 780 公斤;投宿一晚用電 30 度,排碳 80 公斤;20 人團乘巴士 500 公里,平均每人排碳 15 公斤; 連製造 1 公斤垃圾也排碳約 2 公斤,可見觀光業實不能稱無煙囪,且其所消耗的能源及排放 的二氧化碳,幾乎全數由旅遊目的地國家承受。因此叢薾島國台灣能否支應此能資源開支? 能否負荷此龐大的碳排放?觀光業該消耗多少的能資源係屬合理?快速成長的休閒農場碳排 放現況為何?該如何預測其碳排?休閒農場的碳排減量對策應為何?其效益為何?相信此皆 為邁入綠色觀光遊憩之前應有的基礎研究。 本研究為系列性研究計畫,其中已具備三年之系列前期計畫成果,可為本研究賡續進 展基礎。其餘工作要項區分為三年期研究計畫,未來擬以前三期之成果為基礎,賡續發展後 續研究,期建立台灣休閒農場碳排放全貌及其評估預測模式,各年期研究計畫如下: 1. 休閒農場營建碳排放調查分析之研究(本次申請之第一年研究子題) 1-1 蒐集休閒農場之營建新建及整建資料(現正進行中) 包含觀光渡假型、農村民宿型、觀光果園型、農村體驗型、生態保育型之休閒農場。 1-2 建立休閒農場建築及設施統計之基礎資料(現正進行中)。 包含建築圖面及預算表之統計,用以估計營建工程、結構體、假設工程、機電、給 排水、消防及裝修等建材用量及二氧化碳排放量。 1-3 建立休閒農場碳排放資料庫 1-4 推求休閒農場碳排放量與農場設計關係,尋求休閒農場設計階段碳排簡易評估方式。 1-5 歸結低碳農場特性,尋求農場設計階段減排之建議及對策。 2. 休閒農場營運碳排放之研究(本次申請之第二年研究子題) 2-1 休閒農場之用電、用瓦斯及燃油現況統計(用電已完成、缺瓦斯及燃油)。 2-2 休閒農場之水資源耗用現況統計。 2-3 休閒農場餐飲耗用及一次性用品耗用現況統計。 2-4 休閒農場垃圾製造量統計。 2-5 各類型休閒農場各項資材耗用統計,並尋求簡易評估準則。 2-6 各類型休閒農場使用階段碳排放密度統計及預測模型。 3. 休閒農場減碳基準研擬及對策研議(本次申請之第三年研究子題) 本期計畫基於前期調查資料,進階分析休閒農場之碳排放,預計工作項目及成果: 3-1 各類休閒農場新建、整建、營運及拆除階段之碳排放資料庫建立。 3-2 建立各類休閒農場碳排放量及碳排放密度預測模型(結合第一年結論建立新建及整 建之碳排簡算模型、結合第二年建立旅館營運碳排放預測模型)。 3-3 建議各類休閒農場碳排放量基準、人均碳排放量基準。 3-4 各類休閒農場於各階段之優秀減碳實例蒐整。 3-5 休閒農場碳排放減量對策及建議。 3-6 休閒農場碳排放減量效益評估。
    Taiwan tourism market has been experiencing increase in number and change in quality in recent years. Outbound tourism decreases, while the inbound tourism and domestic tourism increase a lot. The inbound tourists have exceeded over seven million in 2012, and the average growth of past three years reach as high as 17%. The domestic tourists increase by 22 millions per year, and the average growth is 12.7% in the past three years. Meanwhile, the number of recreation resorts rises rapidly. In 1992, the number of recreation resorts is only 31, whereas it grows to 498 in 2012. The traits of recreation resorts display a great deal of diversity. Most of the resorts transform from orchards and citizen farms into recreations and accommodations. In other words, the pattern of recreation has changed from one day to more than one day in resorts. The accommodations become one of the main energy consumptions, especially in vacation resorts. In order to attract urban ladies and gentlemen to lodge in air-conditioning and enjoy delicacies, some five-star recreation resorts, known as leisure farms, establish luxury resorts and hotels, which lead to a great deal of energy consumption. Moreover, some resorts boast their own features, including agriculture, pasturage and farm products. Accordingly, all these elements contribute to a huge amount of carbon dioxide. Taiwan nowadays is in a huge up growth which the tourism industry has never experienced and the impact and challenge can not be ignored. A lodging guest consumes triple amount of water compared with normal use per capita in household. The energy use intensity in hotels is 3-5 times of household. Driving a medium sedan exhausts 25 kg of CO2 per 100 km. A 6,000 km flying exhausts 780 kg of CO2 per capita. A lodging guest consumes 30 kWh per night, which exhausts 80 kg of CO2. A 500 km bus traveling exhausts 15 kg of CO2 per capita. Even 1 kg of garbage may lead to 2 kg of CO2 emission. From the data mentioned above, tourism is definitely not an industry without carbon dioxide. What’s worse, the carbon dioxide stays where it is produced. Could an island country like Taiwan afford such enormous resource consumption? Could we bear such huge CO2 emission? What is the reasonable resource consumption rate of tourism industry? What is the true situation of CO2 emission on recreation resorts? How could recreation resorts evaluate and predict its carbon dioxide? What are the appropriate policies of reducing carbon dioxide and what is its effectiveness? The answers of these questions pave the road to green tourism. Based on 3 former related researches, the research is intended to build a database and to sort out good models of carbon dioxide of recreation resorts industry in Taiwan. Some comparison will be established in order to propose some suggestion. The research plans are listed yearly as followed: 2 1st year: Research on the Carbon Dioxide of Recreation Resorts in Constructed and Refurbished Phase 1-1. To assemble the newly constructed and refurbished data of recreation resorts. 1-2. To establish the architecture and equipment statistical database of recreation resorts. 1-3. To establish the statistical database of carbon dioxide on recreation resorts. 1-4. To suggest simplified methods of predicting carbon dioxide on recreation resorts. 1-5. To suggest references of reducing carbon dioxide on recreation resorts. 2nd year: Research on the Carbon Dioxide of Recreation Resorts in Operation Phase 2-1. To establish a database of electricity, gas and fuel consumption data of recreation resorts. 2-2. To establish water consumption data of recreation resorts. 2-3. To establish a database of food, beverage and unreusable appliances on recreation resorts. 2-4. To establish a database of garbage created on recreation resorts. 2-5. To establish a database of resources of recreation resorts and to propose a simplified estimation principle. 2-6. To establish a statistical database and to establish prediction models of carbon dioxide on every types of recreation resorts. 3rd year: Research on the Carbon Dioxide Reducing Suggestion and Classification Standard of Recreation Resorts Industry. 3-1. To establish a database of newly constructed, refurbished operation and demolishment phases on every types of recreation resorts. 3-2. To establish prediction models of carbon dioxide and CO2 emission density on every types of recreation resorts. 3-3. To propose the classification standard of CO2 emission and carbon dioxide per guest on every types of recreation resorts. 3-4. To assemble the superior cases in terms of reducing carbon dioxide in every phase of every types of recreation resorts. 3-5. To propose suggestions on reducing carbon dioxide of recreation resorts industry. 3-6. To estimate the benefit of reducing carbon dioxide on recreation resorts industry.
    Appears in Collections:[觀光事業管理系(含溫泉所)] 國科會計畫

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