The anti-inflammatory effects of an aqueous extract of Welsh onion green leaves (WOE) in mice was investigated. Administration of WOE, in the range of 0.25-1 g/kg, showed a concentration dependent inhibition on paw edema development after carrageenan treatment in mice. The anti-inflammatory effects of WOE were closely attributed to decreased levels of tissue NO and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-alpha). Further evidence for WOE's protection is shown in the reduction of lipid oxidation and the increase of antioxidant enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in vivo. Further, WOE also decreased the number of acetic acid-induced writhing responses and formalin-induced pain in the late phase in mice. Overall, the results showed that WOE might serve as a natural source of anti-inflammatory compounds. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.