This study investigated the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extracts of Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq. (STE). The results showed that STE displayed radical scavenging and reducing activity, as well as liposome protection activity. In addition, the implementation of an HPLC with a photodiode array detector helped to identify polyphenolic components including hesperidin, luteolin, and diosmetin. STE administration in the range of 125-500 mg/kg showed concentration dependent inhibition on carrageenan induced inflammatory response in mice. The anti-inflammatory effects of STE could be related to tissue NO and tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-alpha) suppression, and associated with the reduction of lipid peroxidation and an increase in antioxidant enzyme activities including catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase in vivo. Overall, the results showed that STE might serve as a natural inhibitor of oxidation and inflammation. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.