|摘要: ||現代人壽命越來越長，依據民國100年中華民國內政部統計處調查顯示國人平均餘命為79歲，然而健康狀態的平均餘命僅為69歲。過去農業社會粗茶淡飯到現代的精緻飲食，隨著飲食的改變，發現罹患慢性文明病如：肥胖及代謝症候群等之人口有越來越多的趨勢。現代社會因應而起的健康飲食保健議題興起，其中最受到廣泛討論的食物種類為全穀物食品，而雜糧麵包即為其最具代表性食物之一。本研究目的在探討國人對於雜糧麵包的接受度及決定購買理念與動機，期許未來能提供政府及相關單位推動國人全穀物飲食健康促進活動議題上之參考。本研究對象為台灣地區知名連鎖歐式雜糧麵包坊45家直營店消費的的1635名顧客。以健康信念理論（Health Belief Model, HBM）與行銷組合（Marketing Mix）為研究架構，利用問卷調查方式，探討雜糧麵包消費者購買行為意願之影響因子及選擇食用的信念。研究相關變項，包括個人基本變項（含社會人口統計資料、飲食習慣、生活型態、及全穀類知識）、社會心理相關因素（含自覺罹病性、自覺嚴重性、自覺行動利益與障礙、及行動誘因）、以及行銷組合因素（含產品、價格、通路、推廣）。結果顯示：在社會人口統計資料方面，研究對象主要購買年齡階層為30歲~50歲（平均年齡39.9±13.1歲），女性顧客群佔75.6%，教育程度較高，半數以上擁有大專/大學以上學歷，以中高收入者居多。此外，受試者平日注重飲食，超過六成以上符合飲食指南標準「每日五蔬果」及「1/3主食全穀物」，每週維持固定運動習慣，且近五成目前沒有罹患任何疾病。在健康信念相關因素方面，自覺罹病性及嚴重性認知結果呈現不顯著。內在行動誘因（個人體驗）則較外在行動誘因（大眾傳播、廣告）影響顯著。此外，全穀物知識顯著影響食用及購買雜糧麵包行為，知識分數與雜糧麵包之攝取行為、購買頻率、及購買金額，皆呈現正相關性。本研究建議，加強宣導全穀物健康飲食訊息，以幫助國人減少慢性文明病的發生率；強化自覺罹病性及嚴重性之威脅認知，以提升消費者健康意識；訴求自覺行動利益並降低自覺行動障礙，以增加消費者選擇食用及購買雜糧麵包行為意願；行銷組合策略的有效應用，有助於建立店家品牌知名度，並增加顧客購買雜糧麵包的機會。|
The average life expectancy of Taiwanese people is 79 years old according to statistical data reported in the year 100 by the Ministry of the Interior (MOI) of the Republic of China (ROC); however, the average age of the onset of serious health conditions is 69 years old. From an early agricultural period to today’s modern society, dietary habits in Taiwan have transitioned from a strict reliance on simple foods, rich in fibers and nutrients, to an overindulgence of refined foods, which have caused many common syndromes in health such as diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and other chronic “modern” diseases. The emergence of such health conditions has led to public concern, and therefore there is a growing desire to reintroduce multigrain and whole grains back into the modern diet, and the multigrain bread is one of the most representative ones. This study aimed to explore the customers’ purchasing behavior, motivation, and acceptance of multi and whole grains based on the conceptual frameworks of the “Health Belief Model (HBM)” and “Marketing Mix.” The results of this study provide governments and related units with useful information to assist in the promotion of healthy eating behaviors, which includes maintaining a diet rich in fiber like whole grains. A total of 1635 samples were collected from the customers of 45 different branches of one European-style multigrain bakery in Taiwan. The questionnaire was used a measuring tool to discover the customer’s buying behaviors and eating beliefs regarding multigrain bread. The study variables included personal information (social demography, eating habits, lifestyle factors, and knowledge of whole grains), psychosocial variables (perceived threats of diseases, perceived benefits and barriers, and cues to action), and the “Marketing Mix” factors (product, price, place, and promotion). The results indicated that the age of the majority of customers ranged from 30 to 50 years old, and females（75.6%）took a bigger part in the multigrain bread market than males. Most customers had received higher education. Over 50% of subjects had a college’s degree (either 2 or 4 years), had the middle to high income. Besides, they tended to be very concerned about their daily diet. Over 60% of them whose daily diet had reached the recommended standards of “3 vegetables & 2 fruits a day,” and “1/3 of all grains consumed were whole grains.” These individuals maintained a regular exercise routine. Nearly 50% reported no prior disease history. The health belief variables of perceived health threats were found having no statistically significant impact on target variables. The internal factors (personal experience) were more influential than the external factors (mass media or advertisement) were. Moreover, the knowledge of whole grains might affect the customers’ eating habits and purchasing behaviors. Higher scores of knowledge of whole grains had a significant positive correlation to three aspects: “eating multigrain bread,” “purchasing frequency,” and “purchasing price.” In conclusion, the study suggested that: an emphasis on a healthy diet with whole grains might help to reduce the prevalence of chronic diseases among Taiwanese people; the applications of influential psychosocial factors of perceived susceptibility and severity into nutrition education could increase the awareness of health ; increasing perceived benefits and decreasing perceived barriers towards the consumption of multigrain breads might increase the willingness of customers’ selection and purchase of multigrain breads; and effective applications of “Marketing Mix” might help to build up the brand recognition for the store and also to increase the possibilities for customers to buy multigrain breads.