|摘要: ||本研究在探討長途大型客運駕駛的健康、工作狀況、壓力、睡眠品質與顧客關係的狀況，並分析身體質量指數(Body Mass Index[BMI])、壓力對睡眠品質與顧客關係是否有影響。研究對象為八十二位國道大型客運駕駛，採用壓力知覺量表(Perceived Stress Scale[PSS])、匹茲堡睡眠量表(Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index[PSQI])以及自編之顧客關係量表進行問卷調查。
受訪駕駛平均年齡為41.33±8.42 歲，BMI 值為26.08±4.03(過重佔23.2％、肥胖佔52.4.％)，罹患慢性病的比率為35.4％，最常見的是高血壓(11.0％)，其次為心臟疾病或高尿酸或痛風(均為7.3％)。每週平均工作61.77±13.74 小時，約四成(40.2％)的駕駛在駕駛期間總是會喝提神飲料。
駕駛的PSQI 得分為5.31±3.27，睡眠品質不佳者佔45.1％，每日睡眠時間不足6 小時的佔23.1％，壓力偏高佔52.4％，顧客關係不佳者佔45.1%。
駕駛的壓力與睡眠品質（r=0.739，p<0.01）、顧客關係（r=0.611，p<0.01）相關。壓力高的駕駛不僅睡眠品質較差( 7.26±2.75 vs3.23±2.38，p<0.001)，與顧客的關係也較差（9.05±5.72 vs 3.49±4.40，p<0.001 )。壓力較小的駕駛有效睡眠時間較長、自估入睡時間較正確，且較易入睡，對睡眠滿意度較高且白天較清醒。輪班工作的駕駛其壓力較高且顧客關係較差，但工時長短在壓力程度上無顯著差異。
The aim of our study was to investigate the health condition, working hours and habit, stress, sleep quality and customer relationship of long-distance bus drivers, and evaluated if stress and BMI were related with sleep quality and customer relationship. The sample was drawn from 82 long distance bus drivers in southern Taiwan, and a self-reported questionnaire with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and revised customer relationship scale were used.
The average age of drivers was 41.33±8.42, BMI was 26.08±4.03(overweight was 23.2％、obese was52.4％), 35.4 ％ of drivers had chronic diseases, in which high blood pressure was the most popular (11.0％), next is heart disease or gout (both were 7.3％). The average working hour per week was 61.77±13.74. About 40.2％ of drivers would drink specific beverage(caffeinated or energy drinks) to reinvigorate physical vigor.
Results showed the average PSQI was 5.31±3.27, 45.1％ drivers had low sleep quality and 23.1％ had sleeping hours less than 6 hours per day. 52.4％ had high stress and 45.1% had poor customer relationship.
The sleep quality（r=0.739，p<0.01）and customer relationship（r=0.611，p<0.01）were significantly related with stress. The higher stress, the lower sleep quality ( 7.26±2.75 vs3.23±2.38，p<0.001) and the more worse customer relationship（9.05±5.72 vs 3.49±4.40，p<0.001 ). Drivers with less stress had longer effective sleeping time, shorter sleep latency, higher satisfaction for sleep quality, and were more arousal during daytime. Shift work drivers had higher stress and worse customer relationship. However, those who had longer working hours showed no such differences.
In summary, the long-distance bus drivers were overweight, had long working hours and higher stress. BMI and stress of the bus drivers affects their sleep quality and customer relationship.