In this study, the effects of a water extract of sugarcane leaves (WSL) on antimutation and nitric oxide (NO) production were investigated. The results showed that WSL inhibited the mutagenicity of benzo[a]pyrene (BP), an indirect mutagen; and N-methyl-N′-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), a direct mutagen toward Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100. In addition, WSL, in the range of 0–0.4 mg/ml, showed superoxide inhibiting, NO scavenging, and reducing activity, as well as decreased lipid oxidative damage. In the range of 0–1 mg/ml, the inhibitory effect of WSL on NO generation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated macrophages increased with increasing concentrations. A high performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the polyphenolic constituents, such as caffeic acid, ferulic acid, apigenin, and vitexin were present in WSL. These data suggested that WSL exhibiting biological activities could contribute to antimutation, anti-inflammation as well as antioxidation.