Asperfuranone, a novel compound of genomic mining in Aspergillus nidulans, was investigated for its anti-proliferative activity in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. To identity the anti-cancer mechanism of asperfuranone, we assayed its effect on apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, and levels of p53, p21 Waf1/Cip1, Fas/APO-1 receptor and Fas ligand. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that the G0/G1 phase arrest might be due to p53-dependent induction of p21 Waf1/Cip1. An enhancement in Fas/APO-1 and its two form ligands, membrane-bound Fas ligand (mFasL) and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL), might be responsible for the apoptotic effect induced by asperfuranone. Our study reports here for the first time that the induction of p53 and the activity of Fas/Fas ligand apoptotic system may participate in the anti-proliferative activity of asperfuranone in A549 cells.