This study developed a rubber foam model consisting of a surface layer of solid and a base layer of honeycomb core and used it to investigate head injury protective performance. An explicit finite element method based on the experimental data was used to simulate head impact on the rubber foam. The peak acceleration and head injury criterion (HIC) were employed to assess the shock-absorbing capability of the foam. This study supports the feasibility of using rubber foam with honeycomb core construction to improve shockabsorbing capability. The honeycomb-core structure provided an excellent cushioning effect via a lower axial shear stiffness of the surface layer and lower transverse shearing stiffness of the core. The core’s dimensions were an important parameter in determining the shearing stiffness. The analysis suggested that the cushioning effect would significantly reduce the peak force on the head from a fall and delay the occurrence of the peak value during impact, resulting in a marked reduction in the peak acceleration and HIC values of the head.