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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.cnu.edu.tw/handle/310902800/24401


    標題: 重大危害之風險評佑中使用的基準
    Developing Criteria Used In the Risk Assessment of Major Hazards
    作者: 黃清賢
    貢獻者: 工業安全衛生科
    關鍵字: 重大危害
    風險
    基準
    major hazard
    risk
    criteria
    日期: 1987
    上傳時間: 2011-10-24 14:27:27 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 本文所建議的風險評估基準適用於高風險工業如石化、煉油,及一般化學工業。但其基本方法亦可應用於核電廠。重大危害常存在於高風險工業,可能釀成大量毒氣外洩,或嚴重的火災、爆炸事故,致造成廠內員工與廠外社區民眾的傷亡。為減少重大危害,工業界有必要建立定量的風險基準,據此擬定負責任的決策。
    本文根據國內外的事故資料,從而建立適用於國內員工個人風險、廠外社會大眾的成員風險與多人死亡社會風險等三種基準。此外,除顧及可能造成重大傷亡的重大危害之外,亦考慮廠內員工之ㄧ般性風險的基準。
    本文發展出來的重大危害基準如下:
    1.廠內員工的一般性(即非重大危害)風險基準上限是FAR=5.8 ;而廠內員工重大危害的風險基準是FAR=3。
    2.廠外大眾個人成員的風險基準,其上限是5 × 10^- 5/年,其下限是5 × 10^- 6年/年。
    3.社會風險基準係由下式所具有的關係決定 f ( n ≧ N/A ) = f (A) × P ( n ≧ N/A ) ≦ f ( n ≧ X/A ) 基準。
    The criteria proposed are to apply to high risk industries, mainly inclusive of chemical and petro-chemical, and oil refinery processes, The methodology developed here, however, could also be applicable to nuclear power stations. These criteria could be used in the risk assessment for those industries whish intrinsically exist major hazards that possibly lead to massive release of toxic gasses and/or serious fire and explosion. The public-focused accidents often result in casualties of on-site employees and off-site members of the public. To reduce major hazards, it is essential for industry to develop quantitative risk criteria with which the responsible decision-making on risks can be made.
    Risk criteria for employees and the public rooted from our experience (historical fatal accidents) and world wide date are introduced. Criteria for overall hazards which include major hazards and threaten only employees is also considered.
    Unlike requirements for quantified risk assessments by law in other nations, setting a target or criterion is not mandated in Taiwan. The criteria proposed here hopefully would motivate process industries to reach higher level of safety standands.
    Appears in Collections:[嘉南學報] 13期 (1987)
    [職業安全衛生系(含防災所)] 期刊論文

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