Some polyacetylenes from the plant Bidens pilosa have been reported to treat diabetes. In this study, we report that the cytopiloyne from B. pilosa, which is structurally different from the above-mentioned polyacetylenes and inhibits CD4(+) T cell proliferation, effectively prevents the development of diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice as evidenced by a normal level of blood glucose and insulin and normal pancreatic islet architecture. Cytopiloyne also suppresses the differentiation of type 1 Th cells but promotes that of type 2 Th cells, which is consistent with it enhancing GATA-3 transcription. Also, long-term application of cytopiloyne significantly decreases the level of CD4(+) T cells inside pancreatic lymph nodes and spleens but does not compromise total Ab responses mediated by T cells. Coculture assays imply that this decrease in CD4(+) T cells involves the Fas ligand/Fas pathway. Overall, our results suggest that cytopiloyne prevents type 1 diabetes mainly via T cell regulation.