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    標題: 台灣地區二、三等水準測量系統誤差改正之研究
    Systematic Error Corrections of the 2nd and 3rd Order Leveling in Taiwan Area
    作者: 徐博賢
    林宏麟
    余致義
    曾清凉
    貢獻者: 應用空間資訊系
    關鍵字: 系統誤差
    正高改正
    視準軸誤差改正
    折射誤差改正
    systematic error
    orthometric correction
    collimation correction
    refraction correction
    日期: 2008
    上傳時間: 2009-06-15 15:22:17 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 在水準測量計算過程中,系統誤差改正是一項影響精度不可忽視的重要因子,換言之,測量成果中若存在系統誤差,將導致測量成果精度之降低。但是,各項系統誤差大小不同,影響程度各異,若各等級之水準測量,不管其精度要求如何,皆一體適用,全部加以改正,則將造成人力、物力與時間之浪費,有吹毛求疵之嫌。因此,如何在二三等水準測量中,適當的加入系統誤差改正,有效的提升測量成果之精度,又不致增加作業成本,為本研究之主要目的。
    經理論分析與實際測試後發現二等水準測量須做視準軸誤差、折射誤差與正高改正(測區標高超過50 公尺以上),而三等水準測量,則須加入視準軸誤差,測區標高超過100 公尺以上,亦需加入正高改正。但是在視準軸誤差方面,不管是二等或是三等水準測量,若使用電子水準儀時,則因儀器已在內建之程式中自動加入改正,換句話說,根本不需另外再改正。因此,以後若電子水準儀完全取代光學水準儀,則此項系統誤差改正可取消。
    When calculating the level measurement , the systematic error correction is an important factor which affects the accuracy of result and cannot be ignored . If the result involves the systematic error , it will be degraded . In other words , it must be corrected completely . However , different systematic error has different scale and the influence degree is different . If the level measurement of different order adopts same systematic error corrections , no matter how its precision is required , it will cause manpower , material resources waste and spend time and it will be suspected of nitpicking . Therefore , how to deal with the proper systematic error correction , to effectively improve the precision of the measurement , and unlikely to increase the project cost is the main purpose of this research .
    As the result of theoretical analysis and practical test , the systematic error corrections of the second - order level measurement must include collimation error correction , refraction error correction and orthometric correction ( altitude over more than 50 m in the examining area ) . The collimation error correction and orthometric correction ( altitude over more than 100 m in the examining area ) must be involved in the systematic error corrections of third - order level calculation . It should be noted that if the optics spirit level is totally replaced by the electronic spirit level afterwards , the collimation error will be corrected automatically , since the electronic spirit level instrument has already built the formula of automatic correction . In other words , it does not nced to correct again at all .
    關聯: 嘉南學報(人文類)34期:p.927-938
    Appears in Collections:[嘉南學報] 34 期 (2008)
    [應用空間資訊系(所)] 期刊論文

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