It is said that there was a system in ancestral Chin Dynasty: The Emperor’s Court sent out officials to collect folklores in all corners of the territory. Such official carried different names in different documents, for example, “Hsin-Ren”, “Chu-Ren”, “Hsuan-Che Messenger”, “Yo -Ren Messenger”, etc. Poetry-collecting was been conducted to know what common people were thinking and the local customs were been observed. Even if we could not acquire evidence or illustrations to prove this ancestral system from the literature we have obtained, nor could we understand how the book Shijing came into existence. However, the idea of how the people’s voice can get across to the leader (Emperor) so that he can evaluate the efficiency of his policies, merits and shortcomings and civil customs through them has long been identified with by the learned people of the time who traditionally sympathized greatly the suffering under-privileged level in the society. From ancient China, not only was not curbed, but was encouraged, for people of lower ranks to give advice and criticism to people of higher ranks. There was the legend of the establishment of “Drums for the Dare-Say”, and “Wood Established for the Slanderers” in the time of Emperors Yao and Shun. In West Zhou Dynasty, there was the story of how “Chao-Kung advised Emperor Li to mend slanders,” in the Warring States era, Menfucius constantly raised people and incidented in Shijing to advise the authority with one individual’s words; all these gradually formed the tradition of the outspokenness and the art of criticism in the learned people of the following generations. In Han Dynasty, the tradition of teachings in poetry exercised the idea of “criticism in literature” and while the poetry functioned as “forming customs” and “forming criticism,” it was also “lamenting the lapse of morality” and “moaning the strictness of criminal code,” which carries with it the quality of “guilt-free on the speakers’ part, yet advices the listeners as well.” In Yuan-ho era of Tang Dynasty, New Poetry Movement led by Bai, Jui-yi expressed their hope that the authority can bring back the system of “poetry-collecting officials” to widely gather poets’ works and presented them to the Court as references to political reformation. Well into the era of the Republic, modern scholars much affected by western culture, such as Hu, Shih and Chen, In-Ke, continued on with this tradition. They praised people and incidents in their wr iting, sometimes they advised and criticized. All these showed us how valuable the tradition of criticism is.