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    標題: 道教導引行氣術探微
    Exploring the Guiding Art of Chi-Touring in Taoism
    作者: 孫嘉鴻
    貢獻者: 文化事業發展系
    關鍵字: 道教
    道家
    導引
    行氣
    氣功
    Taoism
    The Taoists
    Guiding Art
    Chi-Touring
    Chi Kung
    日期: 2005
    上傳時間: 2009-04-27 13:34:41 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 導引,是一種將呼吸吐納、按摩、肢體運動等與意念結合起來,希望透過「導氣令和,引體令柔。」進而達到養形與長壽的目的。它是以形體的屈伸俯仰為特點,但也伴隨著呼吸吐納,所以常常與「行氣」相提並論,以現代術語形容:前者偏重於「動功」,而後者偏重於「靜功」。道教導引行氣術源遠流長,自先秦時期,《老子》、《莊子》及戰國「行氣銘」,間有對於呼吸吐納、導引行氣的敘述。近世出土的馬王堆帛書「導引圖」、張家山《引書》,皆有圖文並茂的描述。東漢以後,導引行氣術,被納入道教方術體系之中,成為道教修煉防病養生的重要手段;歷來養生家均極為推重,相關資料以道藏中氣功部分論述最詳。
    古人認為:人的肢體關節,本來就必須依靠活動才能發揮它的作用,人體的經脈和營衛,也必須宣暢流通才能平和。他們發現導引行氣可以「理血氣而調諸逆順,察陰陽而兼諸方,緩節柔筋而心和調者。」既可以「逆卻未生之眾病」,也可以「攻治已結之篤疾」。因而在長期探索實踐下,發展了許多不同的技術種類方法,也形成了一種中國傳統上極為獨特的,以呼吸運動為主的健身兼治病的養生方法。本論文試圖將傳統上道家、道教中有關「導引術」的論述,加以歸納、分析、整理;並結合現代人實踐經驗,加以探討印證,希望對「導引行氣」的意義與性質,有
    較全面而深入的瞭解。
    To be guided means to combine the inhalation and exhalation of breathing methods, massage, and exercise of the limbs with one’s will. We hope to achieve the purposes of nurturing the body and longevity through “guiding the chi and make it peaceful, while guiding the body and make it soft.” Its special features are presented with the stretching and bending, bending upward and downward of the body, which is accompanied, however, by the inhalation and exhalation of the breathing method. That is why “chi-touring” and “guiding art” are often mentioned together. To describe it in modern terms, the former can be called “the kung in the movement” and the latter, “the kung in the stillness.” The art of guiding the chi-touring in Taoism enjoys a long history. Ever since the ancient Chin Dynasty, famous classics like the “LaoTzu,” “Chuang Tzu,” and the “Commemoration for Chi-Touring” in the Era of Warring States, there are descriptions on and off of the inhalation and exhalation of breathing methods and the guiding of the chi circulation. The recently recovered ancient scrolls-“Graph of Chi Guiding” and the “Book of Guidance” by Chang, Chia-Shang from the Han tombs at Mawangduei are full of detailed descriptions in pictures and literature. After the East Han Dynasty, the guiding art of the chi-touring had been incorporated into part of the Taoist system of medical art practice which then became an important method for Taoist cultivation of physical and mental capabilities and the prevention of illnesses. It has since then been esteemed highly by life-nurturing specialists throughout history. Of all the relevant information found, the part which deals with chi kung in the entire Taoist collection of literature has been described in the finest details. People from the ancient China believed that the joints of limbs on human body have to be maintained and strengthened by constant movement. Whether the circulation system and the defense system of the human body can be in peace with one another depends only on the fully and complete circulation of chi. They found that the guiding art of chi-touring could “manage the temperament and make adjustment to their flowing orders and directions while examining the ying / yang in nature against the prescriptions, soothing the joints and softening the tendons to make peaceful and rhythmic the heart.” Not only it can “reverse all the illnesses that are to come,” it could also “cure the already contracted severe diseases.” Therefore, with long-term exploration and practice, a good variety of methods and technologies have been developed, among which, there are the breath-taking, breath controlling, breath adjustment, breath holding, fetal breathing, etc. All these developed into a unique life-nurturing method in Chinese tradition that lays special emphasis on breathing for the purposes of strengthening the body and cures illnesses. In this paper, we attempt to induct, analyze and manage the discourses found in traditional Taoism and Taoist religion regarding “the guiding art of chi-touring;” and complemented it with my personal practical experiences and the modern needs in order to further explore and verify on the theories of it. We hope the nature and significance of “the guiding art of chi-touring” can be more widely and profoundly understood through this research.
    關聯: 嘉南學報(人文類)31期:p.514-527
    Appears in Collections:[嘉南學報] 31 期 (2005)
    [文化事業發展系] 期刊論文

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