|摘要: ||所謂「行氣」，就是一類中國古代獨特的，以呼吸運動為主的健身兼治病的養生方法。這類方法被道教徒作為治病、養生，並最終實現其成仙理想的手段，在道教徒中倍受重視，並在長期實踐基礎上，發展出了大量不同的技術方法種類，如導引行氣與胎息行氣、長嘯呼氣、禁氣與噓氣、辟穀食氣與服氣咽氣、吐納自療與佈氣療病....:等等形成了具有獨特傳統的養生方術。古人認為：「人在氣中，氣在人中，自天地至於萬物，無不須氣以生者也。」人的生命須靠氣來維持，人體外的氣，是呼吸之氣，而人身中有真氣，真氣在人身中要循經絡運行，養生家在行氣時以意領氣，順其自然地控制真氣的運行，因而行氣的技術也逐漸被開發出來。而行氣的目的則是希望能達到「正體端形，心意專一，固守中外，上下俱閉，神周形骸，調暢四溢，修守關元，滿而足實，因之眾邪自出」。東漢以後，導引行氣術，被納入道教方術體系之中，成為道教修煉防病養生的重要手段；歷來養生家均極為推重，相關資料以道藏中氣功部分論述最詳。本論文嘗試分析討論：一、道教行氣術的起源 二、行氣術的演變 三、行氣術的發展與運用 四、行氣術的現代意義等幾項內容。|
The so-called “Chi-Touring” refers to a kind of unique life-nurturing method which focuses on the breathing movement for the purposes of strengthening the body and curing the illnesses in ancient China. Such methods have been used by the Taoists to treat the illnesses and nurturing human life, and eventually as a way to ultimately realize one’s dream to become a fairy, which are goals greatly emphasized among the Taoists. A great quantity of various kinds of techniques and skills have been developed on the basis of long-term practices, for example, the guiding art of Chi-touring and the Chi-touring of fetus breathe, inhalation through a long roar, holding the breathe and hiss the breathe, refraining from the grains and feed on the Chi and the taking and swallowing of Chi, self-healing through inhalation and exhalation, as well as “distributing the Chi for illness treatment, …and so on and so forth. Together they formed a life-nurturing methods and magical skills of a unique tradition.The ancestors believed that “The Man is in within the Chi, and the Chi is within the Man. All the creatures of heaven and earth depend on Chi for survival.” The life of human being is sustained by Chi, the Chi outside of the human body is called the air for breathing. Within the human body, however, there exists the real Chi which travels along the nerval meridian. Life-nurturing masters guided the Chi with their will when they performed the guiding art, and controlled the touring of the real Chi with the natural course; therein, the techniques of Chi-touring were then gradually developed. The purposes for Chi-touring, though, are the wish to achieve the status of “straightening the body and the form, concentrating one’s mind on one thing only, guarding the inside and outside of the body well, closing up both the upper and lower virtual openings, guiding the chi around our body with our will, making comfort flourish the all around one’s body, cultivating and guarding one’s spirit, feeling fulfilled and satisfied, and thereby automatically expelling all the evils.” After the Eastern Han Dynasty, the guiding art of Chi-touring was incorporated into the system of magical skills of Taoism and has become an important means in Taoism for the purposes of skill-training, illness-prevention and life-nurturing. Throughout the history, life-nurturing masters laid great emphasis on the art. The most detailed discourses were found in the field of Chi-kung in Taoist collection of literature.In this essay, I tried to conduct an analytical discussion on: (1) The origin of the Chi-Guiding in Taoism (2) The transformation of Chi-Guiding (3) The Development and Application of Chi-Touring (4) The Modern Significance of Chi-Touring, etc.