辟穀，是避食五穀之意。食氣，是以氣為食，不再食用人間的五穀，進而吸食天地日月之精氣。古來修道之士認為：「食穀者智慧而夭」不能長生，相反「食氣者」卻能達到「神明而壽」。所以，想要長壽延年，就必須「辟穀食氣」。 辟穀食氣術，源遠流長，戰國秦漢間就被列為成仙法門之一，《莊子》、《楚辭》等書均有明確的記載。而後世出土的馬王堆漢墓帛書中更對於辟穀食氣術有著詳盡的論述。東漢魏晉時期的不少方士都熱衷於辟穀之術，日後並發展成為道教修煉養生的重要手段；惟歷來養生家評價不一，遠人如葛洪，近人如陳攖寧均持保留態度，事實上，古今中外均不乏辟穀食氣的實例，現代社會裏更充斥著節食減肥的例子，它和古代辟穀食氣有何不同？我們能否能吸取古人的經驗智慧，進而為今人所用，值得我們做進一步的探討。 本論文嘗試分析討論：一、道教辟穀食氣術的起源 二、傳統上食六氣說與馬王堆漢墓帛書中的辟穀食氣術 三、辟穀食氣術在後世的發展與評價，四、辟穀食氣術與現代社會等幾項內容。 Refraining from grains means to avoid eating all kinds of grains. Taking chi means taking chi as the food and abandoning the grains on earth, and through this process, one can take in the essence and spirit of the moon and the sun between heaven and earth. Ever since the ancient time, Taoist recluses have always believed that: “The grains eaters get the wit, yet they die early.” Grain-eaters are not able to enjoy longevity. On the contrary, the “Chi-takers” could achieve the status of “clear conscience that leads to longevity.” Therefore, to get longevity, one has to “refrain from grains and take chi.” The scheme for refraining from the grains for chi-circulation has had a very long history. It was listed among the magical schemes to become fairies ever since the Chin and Han Dynasties in the Warring States Era. It was also clearly stated in ancient books like Zhuang-Tze, Chu Tzu, etc. The cloth-books unearthed from Ma-Wang-Dui Tombs kept a detailed account of the scheme for refraining from the grains and taking chi. Many Taoist masters were enthusiastic with the scheme of refraining from the grains in the era of Eastern Han Dynasty and Wei-Jin Dynasties. It was later developed into an important scheme in Taoism for self-cultivation and health-nurturing; Only the opinions from health-nurturing masters have been mixed throughout the history. Ancient ones like Ge, Hung; and of late, there are also masters like Ing-Ning, Chen, who have all held a conservative attitude about it. As a matter of fact, there are numerous real examples of people who practiced the scheme of refraining from grains and taking chi. It is also common in the modern society to see people following certain diets in order to lose weight. What’s the difference between modern diets and the ancient scheme of refraining from grains and taking chi? Can we possibly absorb the wisdom and experience from ancient people and have it utilized today? These are issues well deserve further exploration and discussion. In this research, we attempt to analyze and discuss on the following issues: I. The origin of the scheme of refraining from grains and taking chi. in Taoism II. The traditional “theory of taking the six chi” and the scheme of refraining from grains and taking chi that was recorded in the cloth-books of Ma-Wang-Dui Tombs. III. The development and criticism of the scheme of refraining from grains and taking chi through dynasties. IV. The relationship between “the scheme of refraining from grains and taking chi” and the modern society.