本研究旨在探討父母親與兒童食物偏好相似性。研究樣本為203組4到7歲，就讀於幼兒園及國小一年級兒童及其父母親，就四大類共四十種兒童常吃食物，進行一對一食物偏好訪談。以父母親自評其對四大類，各十種食物喜歡順序，兒童自評對四大類，各十種食物喜歡順序方式，獲得親子間食物偏好評估資料。研究結果如下：（1）四十種食物中，約有60%的食物，父母親與兒童間食物喜歡度呈顯著差異；顯示有約40%的食物，父母親與兒童食物喜歡度相似。（2）四十種食物中，有十六種食物，母親與兒童喜歡度相似；有十五種食物，父親與兒童喜歡度相似，顯示無論是父親或母親，皆有約40%的食物與兒童喜歡度相似，父親或母親對兒童食物偏好有一樣重要的影響。（3）因食物類別不同，父母親與兒童食物喜歡度相似情形不同。其中以水果類食物，父親與兒童喜歡度相似食物種類最多；喜歡度相似食物種類最少的，則是蛋白質類食物。母親與兒童喜歡度相似食物種類最多的為五穀根莖類食物；喜歡度相似食物種類最少的，則是蔬菜類食物。研究結果所得發現，將從父母親對兒童食物偏好影響，及家庭在兒童食物偏好發展過程中所扮演的角色二方面做討論，並就兒童營養教育，及未來研究方向做建議。 Similarity between parents and children’s food preferences was investigated in this study. Samples were 203 preschool and first grade children of aged 4-7 years old and their parents. Four major food groups consisting of 40 different foods with which children were familiar were measured in this study. Food preference interviews were conducted one on one. Parents were asked to evaluate the order of the food likes for each group of food consisted 10 different food items. Children were also asked to tell the order of food likes for each group of food for himself/herself. Results of the study were as follows. (1) Among 40 food items, there was about 60% of the food which parents and children’s degree of food likes were significantly different. This result indicated that there were about 40% food which parents’ and children’s preferences were similar. (2) Among 40 food items, there were 16 kinds of food for which mothers’ preferences were similar to children’s and 15 kinds of food for which fathers’ preferences were similar to children’s. The results indicated either fathers’ or mothers’ degree of food likes were similar to those of children and the influences of fathers and mothers on children’s food preferences were equally important. （3）The degree of similarity of the food likes between father/child and mother/child varied for different groups of food. For the fruit group, the greatest similarity existed between father/child. For the protein group, the similarity between father/child was the least. While for the starch group, the greatest similarity existed between mother/child. For the vegetable group, the similarity between mother/child was the least. Results of the study were discussed in terms of parents’ influences on children’s food preferences and the role of family in children’s developing food preference. The suggestions concerning children’s nutrition education as well as further researches were proposed.